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Chapter 16: The Civil War

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John Kennedy

on 12 May 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 16: The Civil War

I. The War Begins
II. The War in the East
III. The War in the West
IV. Daily Life During the War
V. The Tide of the War Turns
Ch. 16: The Civil War
1861-1865
1. 1st Shots at Fort Sumter
fort needed supplies
Lincoln's Decision: supply or surrender the fort
North forced to abandon the fort
2. Reaction to Lincoln's Call
stunned at the loss
called for 75,000 men for 90 days
Kentucky refused
other states succeeded
A. Americans Choose Sides
1. Volunteer Armies
before the war, the North had 16,000 soldiers
within months had 500,000 soldiers
2. Helping the Troops
raised money
nurses & hospitals
3. Training the Soldiers
little to no training
few uniforms
poor weaponry
B. Preparing For War
1. 1st Battle of Bull Run
hundreds of spectators
most expected a quick battle & war
"Stonewall" Jackson
"rebel yell"
Confederate victory, embarrassing loss for the North
bloodiest battle in American history
Lincoln calls for 500,000 men for 3 years
2. More Battles in Virginia
Gen. McClellan (North)
Gen. Robert E. Lee (South)
Seven Days Battles
2nd Battle of Bull Run
Lee's victories give
Confederates confidence
A. War in Virginia
1. Lee Invades the North
hope was to end the war
took 40,000 troops into Maryland, but split them in half
battle plans found by Union scouts
2. The Battle
McClellan was slow to act
thought Lee had reserves
Lee forced to retreat
25,000 casualties
bloodiest single day in U.S. history

B. Battle of Antietam
1. Union's Anaconda Plan
blockade to prevent the South from trading
hard to impose because the Navy was small
2. Clash of Ironclads
introduction of steam powered iron ships
CSS Virginia vs. USS Monitor
battle was a draw, though both sides claimed victory
changed naval warfare
wooden ships obsolete
Navies all over the world began to mass produce ironclads
C. Breaking the Union Blockade
1. Ulysses S. Grant
bold & aggressive
victories in Tenn. at Fort Henry & Fort Donnelson
2. Battle of Shiloh
surprise attack by Confederates
Grant victorious, with the help of William Sherman
3. Fall of New Orleans
largest Confederate city
vital port city
Adm. David Farragut
Union victory gave them control of New Orleans
4. Siege of Vicksburg
city on a cliff, hard to attack
U.S. Grant laid siege, had to starve them out
Confederate surrender on July 4 gave the Union control of the Mississippi River
A. Union Strategy in the West
1. Confederates wanted control of western lands for food
2. Native Americans
3. Controlled by the Union throughout the war
4. Confederate forces remained active throughout the war though, forcing the Union to keep valuable troops in the area
B. Struggle for the Far West
1. Lincoln Issues the Proclamation
Democratic party worried about a flooded job market
some said war was pointless w/out freeing the slaves
Lincoln worried about losing support for the war
some believed that slaves were being used to help the Confederate war machine
freed all slaves in Confederate states
2. Reaction
abolitionists rejoiced
slaves flocked to Union camps to join the war effort
A. Emancipation Proclamation
1. Contrabands
2. 54th Massachusetts Infantry
3. approx. 180,000 served in the Union army
4. Were primarty targets of Confederate soldiers
B. African Americans Participate in the War
1. Copperheads
southern sympathizers
called for an end to the war
habeas corpus
2. Northern Draft
could buy your way out with $300
"rich man's war & a poor man's fight"
NY riots
McClellan runs against Lincoln for president in 1864
C. Growing Opposition
1. On the Battlefield
primitive medicine
ancient battle tactics
improved weaponry
rifle
minie ball
poor hygiene
disease was the biggest killer
2. Prisoners of War
Andersonville
over 13,000 deaths
prison camps had little food
unsanitary conditions
little shade
D. Life for Soldiers & Civilians
1. Fredericksburg
Gen. Burnside
Lee victorious
2. Chancellorsville
Burnside replaced by Gen. Hooker
Lee wins again
Stonewall Jackson killed
A. Fredericksburg & Chancelorsville
1. First Day
Lee's info lacking
Lee overconfident
2. Second Day
Union holds the high ground
3. Pickett's Charge
charged the center of the Union line
Union holds again
Lee retreats, Gen. Meade doesn't pursue
4. Aftermath
turning point of the war
no foreign help for the Confederacy
5. Gettysburg Address

B. Battle of Gettysburg
1. Wilderness Campaign in the East
Richmond, VA
Gen. Grant
2. Sherman Strikes the South
goal was Atlanta, an important RR link & center of industry
"March to the Sea"
total war
C. Union Campaigns Cripple the Confederacy
1. Fighting Ends
Appomattox Courthouse
Grant & Lee
2. Effects of the War
620,000 casualties
end of slavery
hostility remained
D. The South Surrenders
Full transcript