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Transcript of Greece
Project by: Vincent P. and Carlo I., 2 of
Division 3's students
This Project is about the 6 features of Civilization:
Stable Food Supply
Other Topics Include:
and a little of the Greek's history
(Only partial of the information will be provided)
Greek Gods and Goddesses Family Tree:
The one in highlights are the 12 Greek Olympian Gods (except Hades and Hestia)
A project abou
t the 6 features of civilization
The new Greek capit
after Athens lost to S
The Greek capital
Great Works and Art
Did you know that nudity was popular among Greek young men.
The first Olympic games happened on 776 BC in honor to the King God, Zeus, but no woman can compete.
Another kind of the Olympic games was competed by women in honor to the Queen Goddess, Hera.
Did you know that Alexander the Great's horse, Bucephalus, was afraid of it's own shadow, but Alexander cured it by making the horse face the sun.
No mortar was used in the construction in the temples of Acropolis; stone blocks were smoothly fitted together and held with metal clamps and dowels.
Did you know that Sparta was once a non-violent state where music and poetry flourished; after Sparta was defeated in war, Sparta turned to military matters.
Did you know that board games such as snakes and ladders, and a kind of backgammon or chess have been known for more than 2000 years.
Did you know that after a child is born, the father may choose to abandon it and leave it there to die, or be adopted (baby girls were usually left out like this.)
Did you know that the many empires copied the Greeks way of life, deities,and religion, as a deep sign of respect for it's great empire.
Did you know that Greeks thought sickness was a punishment delivered by the gods.
Vincent: Yeah!... What he said.
The Very First Olympic Games
The very first Olympic Games happen in honor to the chief God Zeus.
The games happen every 4 years in the state Olympia.
Democracy began in Athens, Greece.
Male citizens were given the chance to vote in order to decide how the city-state should be run. This is often said to be one of their greatest ideas.
Corinth was taken over by the Kypselos and he made himself ruler.
This kind of king is called a Tyrant.
When he passed away, his son took over the role of tyrantship.
the start of the 'Classical Period' in Greece. At this time there was a lot of interest in arts, imagination and buildings especially in the city-state Athens. This period continued until 323BC
Great War Victories
the Greeks defeated Persian invaders at the battles of Marathon (490BC) and Salamis (480BC). The Greek victories kept the growing Persian Empire in check.
Greek theatres first became popular in Athens. Greeks found entertainment by visiting theatres to see magicians, jugglers and plays. The actors often wore masks to show the audience if they were happy or sad.
Acropolis of Athens
the Parthenon in Athens was finished. This huge temple was built to house a statue of the Goddess Athena. She was put there to look over and protect the city-state.
Invasion of Greece
146BC Rome conquered Greece - Greece becomes part of the Roman empire
Control over Greece
Philip II, the king of Macedonia, took control of Greece. After his death, his son Alexander the Great took the throne.
Invasion of Athens
Romans led by Sulla sack Athens
Defeat of 2 Leaders
Battle of Aktion
Octavian (later Augustus) defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra
Death of Cleopatra.
Signaling the end of the Greek Empire
End of the Greek Empire
In their early years, children were taught at home, sometimes
at the guidance of a teacher or
pedagogue. Children were taught hoe to read and write, as
well as how to count and draw.
Children were taught letters and syllables, then words sent
ences. Reading and writing were
taught at the same time. Children from the low classes wou
ld not often finish school, but ge
t the rest of their elementary education from their parents.
Having a physically fit body was extremely important to the Greeks. Greek boys would begin physical education either during or just after beginning their elementary education. In the beginning they would learn from a private teacher known as a paidotribe. Eventually boys begin training in gymnasiums. Physical training was seen as necessary for improving one’s appearance, preparation for war, and good health at an old age.
After turning fourteen years old, boys from wealthy families had the option of attending secondary school. A secondary school might have been a permanent one, or it could have been received from traveling teachers such as the Sophists or other philosophers including Zeno of Elea and Anaxagoras of Clazomenae. Secondary education included subjects such as natural science (biology and chemistry), rhetoric (the art of speaking or writing effectively), geometry, sophistry, astronomy and meteorology. The teaching of these subjects became highly valued within Athenian society, because the Athenians believed that intellectual education was a key component of a person’s identity, making up a significant part of a person’s reputation.
Military dominance was of extreme importance to the Spa
rtans of Ancient Greece. In response, the Spartans
structured their educational system as an extreme form of
military boot camp, which they referred to as agoge.
Intellectual studies such as reading and writing were ke
pt to a minimum because of their military ways. A
boy’s life was devoted almost entirely to his school
, and that school had but one purpose: to produce an
indestructible Spartan phalanx. Formal education for
a Spartan male began at about the age of seven when
state removed the boy from the custody of his parents an
d sent him to live in a barracks with many other boys
age For all intents and purposes, the barracks was his
new home, and the other males living in the barracks
ily. For the nex
t five years, un
til about the ag
twelve, the boys would eat, sleep and train within their
citizen who had completed all of his military training
d exercise and saw to it that his students received little
food and minimal clothing in an effort to force the boys to learn how to forage, steal and endure extreme hunger, all of which would be necessary skills in the course of a war. Those boys who survived the first stage of training entered into a secondary stage in which punishments became harsher and physical training and participation in sports almost non-stop in order to build up strength and endurance. During this stage, which lasted until the males were about eighteen years old, fighting within the unit, was encouraged mock battles were performed, acts of courage praised, and signs of cowardice and disobedience severely punished. During the mock battles, the young men were formed into phalanxes to learn to maneuver as if they were one entity and not a group of individuals.
Zeus the King God
Roman form: Jupiter Optimus
God of Lightning and
Parents: Kronos Titan of Time, King of the Titans
Rhea Titaness mother of the Gods
Zeus was the only baby to have escaped from being swallowed by his father. It was done by Rhea. When Zeus was born Rhea quickly hid Zeus on Mount Ida in Crete. After Rhea hid Zeus, She replaced baby Zeus with a rock wrapped in blankets and gave him to Kronos; which he swallowed in one bite without noticing it was only a rock. Zeus was then raised by Gaea, Rhea's mother. He was then raised by a goat called Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes helped drown out the crying voice of Zeus. He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea. Since Cronus ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea and sky and thus, invisible to his father. He was raised by a nymph named Cynosura. In gratitude, Zeus placed her among the stars. He was raised by Melissa, who nursed him with goat's-milk and honey. He was raised by a shepherd family under the promise that their sheep would be saved from wolves. After that Zeus formed a plan and had his mother, Rhea,make Kronos drink a mizture of wine and vinegar so his siblings would be vomited out of their father's system. A war was followed after that with the gods winning, and their father chopped up to pieces and put to Tartarus.
Poseidon: God of the Sea
storms, earth quakes, and horses
Roman Form: Neptune
Hestia: Goddess of the
Roman Form: Vesta
Hades: God of the Underworld
Master of Death
Roman form: Pluto
Hera: Goddess of Women and Marriage,
Roman form: Juno
Demeter: Goddess of Harvest
Roman form: Ceres
Athena: Goddess of Warfare,
wisdom, and crafts
Roman form: Minerva
Apollo: God of the Sun
truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry
Roman form: Apollo
Artemis: Goddess of the Hunt, wild animals, wilderness, childbirth, virginity and protector of young girls
Roman form: Diana
Hermes: God of god of transitions and boundaries, and messenger of the Gods
Roman form: Mercury
Hephaestus: God of blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals, metallurgy, fire and volcanoes
Roman form: Vulcan
Ares: God of War and Bloodshed
Roman form: Mars, Patron of Rome
Aphrodite: Goddess of Love
Roman form: Venus
and the Athena Parthenos
The Athena Parthenos was said to be
found on the east wing of the Parthenon.
What you see right now is only a replica of the real thing. This statue was based on the information written by Greek writers.
This picture is the ancient ruins of the Parthenon on top of the Acropolis. The ruins have been obviously magnificent built in the orders of Pericles, after the Persians destroyed the older one. The Parthenon was built with Ionic marble columns signifying power.
This was where the very 1st Olympic Games happened in honor of Zeus, and his wife, Hera.
Greek Jobs include:
and many more
The greatest and most magnificent City-Sate in
The most brutal and military City-State
in Ancient Greece.
The Greek Alphabet
Greek Social Classes
World Book. "Ancient Greece." World Book Student, Volume 8G, page 366. 2013
(we got all the encyclopedia research on 1 encyclopedia) worth 10 full written tabs.
At the beginning of Greek literature stand the two monumental works of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey. The figure of Homer is shrouded in mystery. Although the works as they now stand are credited to him, it is certain that their roots reach far back before his time (see Homeric Question). The Iliad is the famous story about the Trojan War. It centers on the person of Achilles, who embodied the Greek heroic ideal.
While the Iliad is pure tragedy, the Odyssey is a mixture of tragedy and comedy. It is the story of Odysseus, one of the warriors at Troy. After ten years fighting the war, he spends another ten years sailing back home to his wife and family. During his ten-year voyage, he loses all of his comrades and ships and makes his way home to Ithaca disguised as a beggar. Both of these works were based on ancient legends. The stories are told in language that is simple, and direct. The Homeric dialect was an archaic language based on Ionic dialect mixed with some element of Aeolic dialect and Attic dialect, the latter due to the Athenian edition of 6th century BC. The epic verse was the hexameter. The other great poet of the preclassical period was Hesiod. Unlike Homer, Hesiod speaks of himself in his poetry;
Ancient Greek drama developed around Greece's theater culture. Drama was particularly developed in Athens, so works are written in Attic dialect. The dialogues are in iambic trimeter, while chorus are in the meters of choral lyric. In the age that followed the Greco-Persian Wars, the awakened national spirit of Athens was expressed in hundreds of superb tragedies based on heroic and legendary themes of the past. The tragic plays grew out of simple choral songs and dialogues performed at festivals of the god Dionysus. In the classic period, performances included three tragedies and one pastoral drama, depicting four different episodes of the same myth. Wealthy citizens were chosen to bear the expense of costuming and training the chorus as a public and religious duty. Attendance at the festival performances was regarded as an act of worship. Performances were held in the great open-air theater of Dionysus in Athens. All of the greatest poets competed for the prizes offered for the best plays.
The three best authors are Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. From Aeschylus, we still have seven tragedies, among which the only surviving series of three tragedies performed together, the so-called Oresteia. Seven works of Sophocles have survived, the most important of which are Oedipus rex and Antigone. From Euripides, seventeen tragedies have survived, among them Medea and The Bacchae. Like tragedy, comedy arose from a ritual in honor of Dionysus, but in this case the plays were full of frank obscenity, abuse, and insult. At Athens, the comedies became an official part of the festival celebration in 486 BC, and prizes were offered for the best productions. As with the tragedians, few works still remain of the great comedic writers.
Pearson, Anna. Ancient Greece. Vases and Vessels. New York, New York: Eyewitness books, 2004.
Pearson, Anna. Ancient Greece. Farming, Fishing, and Food. New York, New York: Eyewitness books, 2004.
Pearson, Anna. Ancient Greece. Crafts, Travel, and Trade. New York, New York: Eyewitness books, 2004.
Pearson, Anna. Ancient Greece. Athens, the City of Athena. New York, New York: Eyewitness books, 2004.
Pearson, Anna. Ancient Greece. State of Sparta. New York, New York: Eyewitness books, 2004.
(most of the internet tabs are from
The Greek alphabet emerged in the late 9th century BC. Another unrelated writing system, Linear B, has been in use to write the Greek language during the earlier Mycenaean Period. The Greek alphabet is a script that has been used to write the Greek language, since the 8th Century BC. It was derived from earlier Phoenician alphabet, and was in turn the ancestor of numerous European scripts including Latin. The earlier Phoenician alphabet is a member of the family closely related to the west Semitic scripts. The most notable change made in adapting the Phoenician system to Greeks was their introduction of vowel letters. Greek initially took over all the 22 letters of the Phoenician alphabet. 5 of them were reassigned to demote vowel sounds. In its classical and modern forms, the alphabet has 24 letters, ordered from alpha to Omega. Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greeks originally had only a single form for each letter. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient Greek and Modern Greek usage, owing to phonological changes in the language. In tradition, Greek vowel letters can be combined with several diacritics including accent marks, so called breathing marks, and the iota subscript. Greeks also introduced 3 new consonant letters for its aspirated plosive sounds and consonant clusters. 3 of the original Phoenician letters dropped out of use before the alphabet took its classic shape; M – Σ, Q – K. Greek was originally written predominantly from right to left, like Phoenicians, but scribes could freely alternate between directions. For a time, a writing style with right to left and left to right lines were common, until the classic period the left to right became normal. Both in Ancient Greece, and modern day Greece the letter s of the Greek alphabet have fairly stable and consistent symbol to sound mappings, making pronunciation of words largely predictable. Ancient Greek spelling was generally near-phonemic. For a number of letters, sound values differ considerably between Ancient and Modern Greek, because their pronunciation has followed a set of systematic phonological shifts.
Among consonant letters, all letters that denoted voiced plosive consonants and aspirated plosives in Ancient Greek stand for corresponding fricative sounds in Modern Greek. Among the vowel symbols, Modern Greek sound values reflect the fact that the vowel system of post-classical Greek was radically simplified, merging multiple formerly distinct vowel phonemes into a much smaller number. This leads to several groups of vowel letters denoting identical sounds today. Modern Greek orthography remains true to the historical spellings in most of these cases. As a consequence, the spellings of words in Modern Greek are often not predictable from the pronunciation alone, while the reverse mapping, from spelling to pronunciation, is usually regular and predictable. Several letter combinations have special conventional sound values different from those of their single components. Among them are several digraphs of vowel letters that formerly represented diphthongs but are now monophthongized. In addition to the three mentioned above (⟨ει, αι, οι⟩) there is also ⟨ου⟩ = /u/. The Ancient Greek diphthongs ⟨ευ⟩ and ⟨αυ⟩ are pronounced [ev] and [av] respectively in Modern Greek. In addition, both in Ancient and Modern Greek, the letter ⟨γ⟩, before another velar consonant, stands for the velar nasal. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, both in its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today also serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics, science and other fields.
Greek citizens were divided into social classes based on how much a family has wealth and their ancestry. Upper class men made up of 5-10% of a City-State. middle class is 20-30% and lower class is 60-70%. Non citizens consisted of women, slaves, and serfs, but unlike slaves, were not considered personal property. To be a member of the upper class in Greece you must be a citizen, and you cannot have a job. A number of the upper class must be free from economic tasks such as trading, He must get slaves to attend to his material concerns such as his property and fortune; only by such liberation can he find time for government etc. The Greeks believed there must be a leisure class, or there would be no standard for good taste, no encouragement of the arts, no civilization. The Elite class was quite small; only numbering to 300 families belong to this class. The middle class in Athens has a large number of non-citizens. The free man (non-slaves) of foreign birth, though ineligible for citizenship, had spent their lives there. They were mostly professional men; merchants, contractors, manufacturers, managers, tradesmen, craftsmen, and artists. The ceramic industry was owned entirely by the middle class. The non-citizens were forbidden to own land, or marry into a family of a citizen. Creating such law allowed citizens to buy land at a cheaper price, because outside competition for the land was eliminated. The middle class made sure to maintain the navy fleet, The Empire was supported through heavy taxes, and commercial supremacy was preserved.
The lower class was partly made up of freed men, who at one time in their lives were slaves. Most of these people were not citizens of the province, so the best class they could go to is Middle class. There are different ways for a slave to be set free. They can be freed if their ransom is paid, or if their master dies, or they pay their debt. The Greeks felt that all men were not created equal. To Greeks, there was no greater disgrace than being stripped of their leadership. The middle and lower class outnumbered the upper class by an enormous amount but in the 600’s BC only the upper class citizens could vote. This might look like an evil system, this oligarchy- but it was an improvement over the traditional style of leadership consisted of 1 person making the decisions. By the 400’s BC, Athens had a democracy and all the men could vote (except slaves). The slaves of Athens were unransoming prisoners of war, victims of slave raids, infants rescued from exposure, and criminals. The Athenian government employed a number of slaves as public clerks, attendants, minor officials, and policemen. Many slaves were women who worked in homes; if a slave misbehaves, he or she is whipped. When he/she is hit, you cannot defend yourself.
Athens was the most powerful out of all the Greek city-states. It was also a great center of the arts and learning. Its patron Athena was goddess of wisdom and warfare and perfectly symbolized the 2 sides of her city’s life. In 480 BC, the Persians destroyed and invaded the city under the orders of Xexes, including the Acropolis’ temples. But after Athens played a leading role in the Persian wars, and successfully defended Athens, a huge rebuilding program was launched by the leader of Athens, Pericles, under the administration of Themistocles, and Athens was adorned with public buildings by Cimon. Athens was situated in an area called Attica, and was more densely populated than the other Greek cities. The people of Athens lived on the land below the Acropolis. The walled city measured about 1.5 km in diameter, although at its peak, the city suburbs extending well beyond the walls. The Acropolis was just south of the center of this walled area. Its beauty was chiefly due to its public buildings, for the private houses mostly insignificant, and its street badly laid out. There were many public buildings in Athens, such as The Oympieion, or the Temple of the Olympian Zeus, southeast of Acropolis near the Ilissos and the fountain Callirrloe, which was long unfinished, until the Romans completed it. Many fine public squares and colonnaded buildings have been found around there around the Agora, an open space for meeting and commercial activity. Nearby was the port of Athens, the Piraeus. Access to the sea was the main reason of Athens’ success. The Acropolis also called the Cecropia, from its reputed founder, Cecrops, was a stern rock in the middle of the city, , about 50 meters high, 350 meters long, and 150 meters wide; its side was naturally shaped on all sides except the west end. `The temple of the Parthenon houses the highest point of the Acropolis. It was dedicated to Athena. It was named the Parthenon because of its root word Parthenos meaning virgin. A smaller part of the temple, named the Erectheion, probably housed the wooden statue of Athena. Its famous porch has marble statues of women (caryatids) instead of columns holding up the roof. Many temples were there such as the Temple of Athena Nike, The Athens’ Parthenon, and the magnificent Erectheion. The temple of Hephaestus, the Agora, the Temple of Ares, the Metroon, Bouleuterion, the Tholos, and the Theater of Dionysus, and other temples for other gods that were built around the city are also found in Ancient Athens.
Sparta was found by in the 10th century BC by the Dorians, who defeated the original inhabitants in that area. 2 centuries later, Sparta conquered Messenia, who gained excellent agricultural land. Sparta is located in the region of Laconia, in the southeastern Peloponnese. Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Evrotas River, Which provided a source for fresh water. It became a luxury loving state, and music and poetry flourished in the land. Later Sparta was defeated in war, and the Messenia’s rebelled against them, and Sparta then turned to Military matters since then. Years later it became a superpower with its main rival Athens. All men of Spartan birth had to serve the army, and children were taken away from their parents to be trained on barracks at the age of 7. The valley of the Evrotas is a natural fortress, bounded to the west by Mt. Taygetus (2407 m) and to the east by Mt. Parnon (1935 m). To the north, Laconia is separated from Arcadia by hilly uplands reaching 1000 m in altitude. These natural defenses worked to Sparta's advantage and contributed to Sparta never having been sacked. Though landlocked, Sparta had a harbor, Gytheio, on the Laconian Gulf.
Ancient Greece was the birthplace of western civilization. Ancient Greek government, science, philosophy, an greek art influenced our lives. Greek civilization was developed on small city-states. Greek city-states were fiercely independent and often quarreled with other people. Their small size and rivalry also had its advantages. Examples are, they were patriotic, and many citizens took part on others affairs. the best known city state in the Greek Civilization were Athens, and Sparta. The ancient Greeks never were a united nation, although they have the smae language, religion, and culture. The Greeks called themselves the Hellas, but they thought themselves different people, and called themselve barbarians. Freedom and way of life was what the Greeks prized the most. This way of life stressed the importance of individuals, and encouraged creative thought. By seeking logical explanation for what happened in the world, the Greeks laid the foundations of science and philosophy. New forms of expression were created by the Greeks, which explored human emotions and personalities. In the mid-400's, The Greek Civilization reached its peak in Athens, where their outstanding achievements made it known as the Golden Age.
The Greeks believed that deities watched over them and directed daily events. Families tried to please house-hold deities with offerings and ceremonies. Each city-state honored one or more deities as protectors of the community and held many festivals in their honor. People flocked to shrines called oracles and consulted priests and priestess, as they believe that Greek deities can foretell the future. The deities weres supposed to talk through the priests and priestess to reveal the future. The most important oracle was at Delphi. In hopes of being cured, sick people visited shrines dedicated to the god of healing, Asclepius. Greek deities greatly resembled humans except for their immortality and superhuman powes. The chief deities lived on Mt. Olympus, with Zeus and his wife, Hera, and other Olympians like Poseidon, and Athena.
The Greek diet was based on such grains such as wheat, and barley, which were used to make bread, cakes and porridge. Also the Greeks had a variety of fruits and vegetables. Their cheap sources of protein were eggs, poultry, and fish. Also, the Greeks used olive oil to in place of butter and they sweetened their food with honey. Life on a Greek farm was difficult as the soil in much of Greece is of poor quality. Greek farms plowed in Spring and then again in Autumn. Plows, which were pulled by oxen, were sometimes made out of wood and tipped iron. The farm workers followed the plow, scattering seeds, such as Barley by hand. Farmers prayed to Zeus and Demeter, goddess of Harvest, for good harvest. On the slopes of the hills were vineyards, and picked grapes in the drying sun. Other grapes were gathered to make wine, the most popular Greek drink. Grapes also do well in the rocky soil, but it demands a lot of care. Grapes have been grown since the Bronze age. Most towns and villages were near the sea and a variety of fish was caught using using bronze fish hooks. Wealthy people wild boars, deer, and hare. Donkeys were used to take farmers and their produce to market. Their hardness was ideal for rough terrain. Wine, the most popular Greek drink was enjoyed at all times of the day. It was thick, needed straining, and was nearly always diluted with water. Many different utensils and containers were used for the storing, serving, and drinking wine. Goats were useful animals. They required only rough grazing ground and provided milk, cheese, and warm clothing for country people in Winter. Attica, the region around Athens, was famous for its olive groves. Olive oil was used in cooking, washing, and oil lamps. The Mediterranean climate is characterized by two seasons; the first dry and hot from April-September: and the 2nd humid for the rest of the year. Even with the ancients were aware of the better nutrition value of wheat, the growing of Barley was less demanding and more productive. Attempts have been made to calculate Attican grain production in the period, but results have not been conclusive. It did not take long for demand to out pace production capabilities as arable land was limited. Olive plantations are long term investment. It takes more than 20 years for a tree to provide fruit, and it only fruits every other year. On the other hand, the Greek land was well suited for Olive trees, which produced so Olive oil. The growing of Olive trees date back to early Greek history. Cabbage, onion, garlic, lentils, chick, pea, beans, were augumented by vegetable gardens and sage, mint , thyme, savory, and oregano on herb gardens. Orchards include figs, almonds, apple, and pear trees; oilseed plants like limeseed, sesame
and poppy were also grown. Animal husbandry is seen as a sign of power and wealth, in the works of Homer, was in fact not well developed in ancient Greece. Goats and sheep quickly became the most common livestock; less difficult to raise and provider of meat, wool, milk, and cheese. Pork and poultry were also raised; oxen were rare and normally used as a work animal, though they were occasionally used as sacrifice animals. Horses were raised in the plains of Thessaly and Argolis. It is most likely that most farms practiced some limited animal husbandry; poultry or small animals grazing on waste land or fed chicken scraps. Combined farm/ livestock operations also existed as well as those specializing in livestock. Flocks of sheep were herded between the valley in Winter and the mountains in Summer. Cows were sometimes raised, although not as common as the others. Wood was exploited, primarily for domestic use; homes and wagons were made of wood as was the aratum, or light plow. The greek forests located in the highlands were denued by goats and charcoal production; it was not long before it had to be imported especially for ship production. Bee keeping provided honey, which was the only known sugar source known to the Greeks, as sugarcanes were not accessible to the Greeks. Honey was also used in medicine and in the production of mead. The Itymettus region were known for the quality of honey produced there. Wax was also produced, used in the lost wax process to produce bronze statues as well as in medicine. Bronze ws used for tools and weaponry. Olive harvests took place from late Autumn to the beggining of Winter, either by hand or pole. Oil was preserved in Terracotta vases for later. Autumn was also a time for pruning trees, and vines and harvesting of Legumes. Spring was a rainy season; farmers too kadvantage of this to bring fallow ground back into production. They practiced biennial crop rotation, alternating from year to year between fallow and cultivated. The Greeks did not use animal manure to, possibly due to the low number of cattles; the only soil addictive was weeds ploughed back into the ground after fields came out to fallow. In Summer, irrigation was indespensible; and harvested with sickles, but not scythes. Wheat was threashed animal power. and the grains stored. In early autumn, they collected deadfall land prepared supplies of firewood; while Winters were mild in the coast thay could be brutal in the highlands. Farmers also had to break the hard crust that had formed oevr the Summer; by the ard plough, a hoe, and mallet, and the follow land was sown by hand the next year. Winter was the time for grape harvests, the grapes were crushed by foot in large vats then the wine was left to ferment in jugs. As improvements can be found in agriculture as the tools remained mediocre, and there were no inventions to lighten up work, It was not until the rise of the Romans that the water mill came into wide use, employing hydrolic power to augment muscle power. It took until the middle ages for real ploughs to be invented.
In the mountainous peninsulas that jutted into the Mediterranean sea. Ancient Greece was located. The peninsula separated the two arms of the Mediterranean. The Aegean sea and the Ionian sea. A thin strip of land linked the southern part of the mainland, called Peloponnesus, the northern part of the mainlands. Ancient Greece was covered with rocky land, but the most fertile of the lands were found in the small valleys and along the coast. The center of trade, government, and religion is a city-state town or city. The Greeks fortified a hill, called an acropolis within or near a city for defense. Walls surrounded the city to protect the cities from invaders like the Mesopotamians. An open are that served as a market place and meeting place called agora, is at the center of each city.
Grreek architects, sculptors, and painters made important contributions to the arts, They strove to achive ideal of beauty based on harmonious porportions. The most influential architectural works were temples. a greek temple consists of an arrangement of columns around a long inner chamber. The greeks developed three influential styles for columns= the simple doric, the graceful Ionic, and ornate Corinthian. Greek sculptures portrayed figures of gods, god desses and human beings. over the centuries their sculptures became increasingly life like. A few greek paintings have survived our knowledge of Greek paintings come from pottery, Greek writings, and copies made by Romans. Music often accompanied plays and poetry recitals in Ancient Greece, and Musicians performed at festivals and private parties. Greek life was dominated by religion so it is not surprising that the temples of Ancient Greece were the biggest and most beautiful. They also had a political purpose as they were often built to celebrate civic power and pride. The Greeks developed three architectural systems, called orders, each with their own distinctive proportions and detailing. Greek orders are Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. The Doric style is rather sturdy and it's top is plain. This style was use din mainland Greece, and colonies in southern Italy, and Sicily.Ionic style is thinner and more elegant. It's capital is decorated with a scroll-like design.This style was found in eastern Greece and the islands.Corinthian style is seldom used in the Greek world, but often seen on Roman temples ; It's capital is very elaborate.The best Greek pottery was made in Athens. A high quality clay was found there ; which fired well to a beautiful reddish-brown colour. Pottery in Ancient Greece was painted with both abstract designs and realistic mural depicting everyday life. Athenian potters worked in a potters' quartet called Keramilcos, producing huge quantities of wheel-made pottery for use at home and export to other countries. Before about 1050 B.C. The greek islands were occupied by the people called Mycenaeans.
Their culture collapsed and Greece went through a "Dark Period", much like the dark ages in Europe after the fall of Roman empire. Historians call the period from 1050 to 900 B.C. the proto-geometrical period after the decorations on pottery for this time. There are various styles of decoration in vase painting. Between 1000 and 700 B.C. geometric patterns were popular. Gradually around 720 B.C. , oriental motifs came into fashion.Black figurine pottery was the most recognizable Greek pottery designs emerged. Black figurine pottery bears iconic representations of figures from Greek myths. The black-figure technique -black silhouette figures painted in a highly refined clay solution on the reddish clay background was the main was of decoration pots in the 6th century. Inner details were cut with a bone or metal tool. Soon after the 500 B.C., the red-figure technique took over. The figure of gods and animals were now left in the reddish - brown clay and the background was painted in a clay solution that in the firing process turned black. Many vases in excellent condidtion have been preserved. The durable composition of Ancient Greek Pottery has allowed it to survive, intact and in pieces, for thousands of years. Greek pottery and pottery fragments are some of the most valuable tools archeologists use for the study of Ancient Greek history. Ancient Greek paintings and structures did not survive as well as Greek pottery, so the paintings on the jugs,vases,and pots provided the majority of the information of Ancient Greek life.The production of pottery tells archeologists that the people have become more comfortable and settled enough to not only make i, but decorate it with intricate designs.
The orientalized pottery painting style originated in Eastern Greece in the 8th and 7th century BC. The trade with the countries of Asia Minor developed this style. Designs from the southern city of Corinth soon spread through out Greece, and the orientalized pottery painting style evolved to become less realistic. Corinthian art depicted silhouettes and abstract designs. The Panathenaic Amphora would have been usually filled with sacred olive oil in Athens, and awarded as a prize to the winner of the Panathenaic games in in Athens, held every 4 years. The amphora was decorated with the black figure technique. Acropolis in Greek means "The Sacred Rock, the High City." All around the world the Acropolis of Athens was called "The Acropolis."The acropolis is primely dedicated to the goddess of wisdom, orderly warfare, and crafts, Pallas Athena patroness of Athens. Situated in the middle of Athens many myths, and festivals, are connected to the Sacred Acropolis. The Acropolis echoes the grandeur and power of the Athenian Empire. Work began on the Parthenon, built on the Acropolis, in 447 BC to replace an existing temple which was destroyed by the Persian in 480 BC. Which cost 469 talent. The work began under the orders of Pericles, to show the wealth and exuberance of Athenian power. The name of the building come from a cult statue of Athena Parthenos, housed in the eastern room of the building. The Athena Parthenos was built with ivory and gold. and was sculpted by the renowned sculptor Phidas. The Parthenon was fianlly finished in the 432 BC and was to show the world the dominance and power of Athens. The vast majority of the money used in the construction came from the Delian League fund. Not only was the Parthenon a magnificent structureto look at, but it also showed the Athenian dominace over the rest of the Greek peninsula and that Athens is its Greek Imperial Master.
Greek art and sculpture has had a profound effect throughout the ages. Many of the styles have been reproduced and copied by some of what the modern day audiences would class as some of the finest artists. Western art and sculpture derived from Roman art, while in the East, Alexander the Great's conquest gave birth to Greco-Buddhist art, which has even had an influence as far as Japan. The Greeks used many different types of materials in their sculptures including stone, marble and limestone as these were abundant in Greece. Other materials such as clay were also used but due to their brittle nature very few have survived.Greek sculptures are very important as the vast majority of them tell us a story about Gods, Heroes, Events, Mythical Creatures and Greek culture in general. Many of the statues that have survived are actually of Roman origin. Like many people today the Romans had a deep respect for Greek sculptures and many were copied. If the Romans had not made these copies, many of the Greek Legends and stories that we know today would have been lost to antiquity. Greek sculptures are mainly divided into 7 time periods - Mycenaean Art, Sub-Mycenaean or Dark Age, Proto-Geometric, Geometric Art, Archaic, Classical and Hellenistic.
Poseidon was one of the 6 children of Kronos.
Domain: Atlantis, Ocean
Hestia, one of the 6 children of Kronos.
Domain: the Hearth
Hades, one of the 6 children of Kronos.
Hera one of the 6 children of Kronos
Children: Ares, Hephaestus
Demeter, one of the 6 children of Kronos
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Jobs in Ancient Greece include musician, teachers, potters, warriors, potters, philosophers, priests, blacksmiths, farmers, and fishermen. These were men's work. Women's work included housework, cooking, looking after the children, and weaving cloth.Greek soil's "stinginess" or "tightness" explains Greek colonialism and the importance of cleruchies of Asia Minor in controlling the supply of wheat. The olive tree and grapevine were complemented by the cultivation of herbs, vegetables, and oil producing plants. Husbandry was badly developed due to lack of available land. Bees were kept to produce honey, the only
known source of sugar for Greeks.Sheep and goat were the most common type of livestock. Woods were heavily exported first for domestic purposes, and eventually to build trimeres. Agricultural rhythm was followed by farmers; harvesting olives and grapes in the beginning of Autumn and the end of Winter, setting aside fallow land in the spring, harvesting cereal in the summer, cutting wood, sowing seeds, and harvesting grapes for Winter. In ancient era, most land were held by aristocracy, During the 7th Century demographic expansion. Greek scientists like philosophers, believed in an orderly universe, which operated in laws only people could discover. They based many theories of the universe with logic and mathematics. They also made careful observations of natures, and sometimes conducted experiments. But Greek scientists rarely tried to conduct experiments and practical problems, so their discoveries had little influence on their technology and everyday life. The ancient Greeks were pioneers in medicine, physics, biology, and mathematics, Some of their conclusions anticipated findings of modern science. Example of these conclusions was when Democritus said things consisted of Atoms. Aristarchus of Samos, concluded that Earth revolved around the sun, but others thought that the sun, stars, and planets revolved around Earth. Philosophy originated in Ancient Greece during the 500's BC. The word philosophy comes from 2 Greek words meaning love of wisdom. The earliest philosophers speculated underlying aubstance of the universe , and how it operated. Later philosophers investigated the nature of knowledge and reality, and sought to define such notions as good or evil. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle were considered the most important philosophers of the Greek Empire. Socrates taught by carefully quetioning his students to expose the weakness of their ideas and arguments. Plato explored the subjects such as beauty, justice, and good government, and his student, Aristotle, summed up the achievments of Greek philosophy and science. As proof, the Athenian Jury sentenced Socrates to death, for corrupting young men and not believing in the god of the city. Most people in Ancient Greece were suspicious of the philosophers and their theories, as tgey valued traditional values and religion. A potters work consisted of selecting the clay, fashioning the vase, drying and painting, baking it, and applying varnish. Part of the production went to domestic usage (dishes, containers, and lamps) for commercial uses and the rest served religious or artistic functions. Techniques for working with clay have been known sice the Bronze Age; the potters wheel have been a very ancient invention. The ancient Greeks did not add any innovations to these processes. The creation of artistically decorated vases in Greece had strong foreign influences. For instance the famed black figurine style of Corinthian potters
most likely was derived from the syrian style of metalworking. Pottery in Ancient Greece was most often done by the Greek slaves. Many of the potters of Athens assembled between the Agoea and the Dipylon, in the Kerameikou. Stone carvers, metal workers, jewels, shoemakers, and many other craftspeople flourished in Ancient Greece. Their
workshops were usually in the center of town around the Agora, or marketplace, People inside would come to buy their own products, and farmers from the country-side would sell vegetables, fruit, and cheese. There were also weights and measure officials money chargers, acrobats, dancers, and slaves waiting on platforms to be sold. Most ordianry people did not travel far from home, because there were few good roads. The faithful donkey was the most reliable form of transportation for shorter journeys. If a Greek wanted to travel long distances, he would usually go by boat around the coast, thereby avoiding the mounatains that cover much of the country. There was a great deal of trade between the city-states and the Greek colonies, as well as with other Mediterranean countries. Upright looms, just like the ones we use today, were used by women in Classical times to make woolen clothing, drapes, and furniture fabrics. Blacksmithers used brick built shaft fueled with charcoal. Bellows would be used to fan the flames. More than half of the Greeks lived by farming or herding. Most farmers worked their land alone or with the help of few slaves. The entire family helped out during planting and harvesting. Farmers raised pigs, grew wheat and barley, and tended olive groves and vineyards. Sheep and goat grazed on poorer land. The Greeks provided a surplus of oil, wine, and wool, which were exported. All of the Greeks manufactured all the stuff they manufactured by hand. Many factories have 20-100workers, which many of them are slaves. These workers excelled at the different skills needed to do the job. Individual city states specialized in what they manufacture, like Athens is famous for their decorated pottery. Greek mercahnts sold surplus goods abroad in exchage for slaves and such products such as grain, timber, and metals. The Greeks major trading partners included Egypt; Sicily, and Scythia, a region near the Black Sea. Deposits of metal ore are common in Greece, of these the best known are the silver mines of Laurium. These mines contributed to the development of athens in the 5th century Bc, when the Athenian's learned to prospect, treat, and refine the ore. The passageways and steps of Greek mnies were dug out with the same concern for proprtion and harmony found in their temples. The work was extremely difficult, due to the tunnels depth were sometimes more than 100 meters. The miner armed with his pick and iron hammer, hinched over in 2 , labored to extract lead ore. With these metals, weapons, armor tools, and a variety of other goods were created. Greece had a very rich tradition in mart-time trade . The introduction of trade into the Greek culture was one of the most defining points in the history of Ancient Greece. Simple transactions set the stage for larger scale trade to come. As trades the Greek city-states (especially by Athens) began to export many goods, including beautiful decorative items, and ships.
The most common ship in Ancient Greece the cargo ship, only second to the trimeres. These cargo ships were used to transport goods which made Ancient Greece prosperous. Cargo ships were also made of wood and arranged about 150 tons around 400's BC These ships used sails instead of oarsmen. Alter in 240 BC were boats were weighing 350-500 tons. Ships began to add sails with the increase in size. As trading grew, the Greeks reached markets all over the Mediterranean as well as in the far east, Egypt, and Lydia. They traded with many different kinds of people, which expanded their imports to new levels. 1 thing that helped trading grow in the Greek world was the laws that were put in place regarding it. The state looked after the safety of merchants in the harbors, and in the markets. And so due to the trade revenues and other minor factors, Greece became a very prosperous country, and world leaders in trade.
Other Greek Jobs
The students would graduate from the agoge at the age of eighteen and receive the title of ephebes. Upon becoming an ephebe, the male would pledge strict and complete allegiance to Sparta and would join a private organization to continue training in which he would compete in gymnastics, hunting and performance with planned battles using real weapons. After two years, at the age of twenty, this training was finished and the now grown men were officially regarded as Spartan soldiers.
The Trojan War
This war was where many demigod heroes participated to take over the Trojans. Heroes like Achilles, and Odysseus were there.
Was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta
Greco–Persian Wars/ Persian Wars
A series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and city-states of the Hellenic world that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC. The collision between the fractious political world of the Greeks and the enormous empire of the Persians began when Cyrus the Great conquered Ionia in 547 BC. Struggling to rule the independent-minded cities of Ionia, the Persians appointed tyrants to rule each of them. This would prove to be the source of much trouble for the Greeks and Persians alike.
A war participated by the Greek empire as the Greek Empire was long gone, and is now part of the Roman Empire.
Greek War History
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Ancient Greece had a warm, dry climate. Summers were hot, and Winters were below freezing. Annual rainfall ranges from as much as 50 cm. 50 inches on the west, and 20 inches on the east. Ancient Greece lacked adequate farm land, rainfall, and irrigation water, so crops were limited. Limestone and marble for building construction were provided by the mountains, and clay for making bricks and pottery. In Greece timber was plentiful at first, however ot became scarce as the people cut down trees without replanting. The shortage of food forced the Greeks to depend on overseas goods and trade. The poor conditions at home isolated many Greeks to find overseas colonies and trading posts. This way the Greek world expanded along the shores of the Mediterranean and Black Sea, and came to include southern Italy in the island of Sicily.
Greek God of Healing
There were many shrines dedicated to him all around the city, so people may pray to him whenever a family member or friend is sick.
The 12 Labours of Heracles
(Hercules is his Roman name)
Driven mad by Hera, Hercules slew his own six sons. After recovering his sanity, Hercules deeply regretted his actions; he was purified by King Thespius, then traveled to Delphi to inquire how he could atone for his actions. There the oracle Pythoness advised him to reside at Tyrins and serve King Eurystheus for twelve years, performing whatever labour might beset him; in return, he would be rewarded with immortality. Hercules despaired at this, loathing to serve a man whom he knew to be far inferior to himself, yet afraid to oppose his father Zeus. Eventually he placed himself at Eurystheus's disposal.
The 12 Labours were:
Slay the Nemean Lion.
Slay the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra.
Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis.
Capture the Erymanthian Boar.
Clean the Augean stables in a single day.
Slay the Stymphalian Birds.
Capture the Cretan Bull.
Steal the Mares of Diomedes.
Obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons.
Obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon.
Steal the apples of the Hesperides (He had the help of Atlas to pick them after Hercules had slain Ladon).
Capture and bring back Cerberus.
Trojan War Horse
After many years have slipped by, the leaders of the Greeks,
opposed by the Fates, and damaged by the war,
build a horse of mountainous size, through Pallas’s divine art,
and weave planks of fir over its ribs:
they pretend it’s a votive offering: this rumour spreads.
They secretly hide a picked body of men, chosen by lot,
there, in the dark body, filling the belly and the huge
cavernous insides with armed warriors.
Then Laocoön rushes down eagerly from the heights
of the citadel, to confront them all, a large crowd with him,
and shouts from far off: ‘O unhappy citizens, what madness?
Do you think the enemy’s sailed away? Or do you think
any Greek gift’s free of treachery? Is that Ulysses’s reputation?
Either there are Greeks in hiding, concealed by the wood,
or it’s been built as a machine to use against our walls,
or spy on our homes, or fall on the city from above,
or it hides some other trick: Trojans, don’t trust this horse.
Whatever it is, I’m afraid of Greeks even those bearing gifts.’
The most detailed and most familiar version is in Virgil's Aeneid, Book II
The Trojan Horse myth
12 Labours of Hercules