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Transcript of POLLUTANTS
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
An amoeba is any of several tiny, one-celled protozoa in the phylum (or primary division of the animal kingdom) Sarcodina. Amoebas live in freshwater and salt water, in soil, and as parasites in moist body parts of animals.
A close up of an Amoeba or Protozoa
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
TDS is the sum total of all of the dissolved things in swimming pool water. It’s everything in the water, that’s not actually water. It includes hardness, alkalinity, cyanuric acid, chlorides, bromides, sulphates, silicates, and all matter of organic compounds.
Every time you add anything to water, you are increasing the TDS. This includes not only sanitizing and pH adjusting chemicals, but also conditioner, algaecides, and tile and surface cleaners. It includes airborne pollutants and bather waste, as well as dissolved minerals in the water.
Source water contains about 200 to 600 ppm. The maximum TDS should be 1,000 ppm above the source water level.
Examples of Bacteria:
Many millions of species worldwide
– 20,000 species found in 1 litre of seawater
Many waterborne bacterial pathogens
– Shigella spp.
– Escherichia coli (O157:H7)
– Staphylcoccus aureus
– Pseudomonas aeruginosa
– Salmonella spp.
– Mycobacterium spp.
– Legionella spp.
There are two types of algae that occur in swimming pools: free floating and wall algae. All algae are microscopic plants that rely on sunlight, carbon dioxide, minerals, nitrogen compounds and nutrients, to grow.
The major problem with algae is it makes the water look dirty and creates slippery surfaces, which can cause accidents around the pool.
Algae can also help bacteria grow, and make chlorination a less effective disinfectant. Shock dosing up to 10ppm will eliminate algae growth.
Urine is composed of urea, ammonia, creatine, uric acid, hippuric acid and inorganic salts.
Urine has a much higher nitrogen content than perspiration, and is therefore more difficult to treat with chlorine.
However the reaction of chlorine with urine takes only minutes, and as long as the free chlorine levels are set within the prescribed range (1.00ppm to 3.00ppm), the complete destruction of ammonia and other dangerous bi-products can be assured.
About viruses :-
There may be 1 million or more in existence
Some common human viruses in water are
– Adenovirus – Hepatitis A – Norovirus – Enterovirus
Acanthamoeba species and Naegleria fowleri, are ubiquitous protozoan organisms naturally occurring within the environment. Under suitable conditions such as those found in poorly maintained pool water they can cause a fatal form of meningo-encephalitis. These protozoa invade the swimmer through the cribriform plate in the nasal cavity and then migrate to the brain. They are readily destroyed by maintaining the required level of disinfecting agent within the pool water.
Corrosion in pool structures is caused by prevailing acidic conditions i.e. a pH of less than 7.0. Such conditions can cause deterioration of structural concrete, cement rendering, other surfaces and cause tiles to lift. Metal fittings including pumps, ladders, underwater light fittings, heat exchangers and pipework will also corrode. This will effect flow and have an impact on water quality management.
It is very important to ensure that the pool water is chemically balanced to reduce the effects of corrosion on pool water quality and the materials used in the pool system.
To ensure effective disinfection in pool water the presence of organic nitrogen must be controlled. This can be achieved by ensuring breakpoint chlorination is maintained at all times.
Humans and animals pollute pool water with viruses which can then infect other users.
Most viruses, especially the enteroviruses, are more resistant to chlorine than bacteria such as Escherichia coli.
Adenoviruses are associated with pharyngitis, conjunctivitis and fever. The enterovirus group includes polio, coxsackie and hepatitis A.
These agents may produce gastro-enteric infections, jaundice, involve the nervous system and cause a variety of skin rashes.
Disinfection concentrations required by the legislation will destroy the harmful viruses and render the pool water safe.
Bacteria can come from humans, animals such as birds, and the environment. Disinfecting agents are used to destroy or inactivate harmful bacteria.
Pathogenic micro-organisms found in inadequately disinfected pools include Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium marinum, Salmonella and Neisseria species. Escherichia coli is used as an indicator for the presence of faecal pollution. Staphylococci and Streptococci are used as indicators for pollution originating from the nose, throat, mouth and skin of bathers. They are more resistant to the disinfecting agents than the coliform organisms.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which can cause eye, ear and skin infections. Mycobacterium marinum cause skin granulomas and it can be found on wet pool surrounds.
Water boatmen are somewhat flattened and elongate in shape. They have the hind two pairs of legs fitted with hairs and the tarsi of the hind legs is scoop or oar-shaped which allows them to swim. Adults range in length from 3 to 11 mm long and are usually dull colored and often mottled.
Water boatmen are the largest group of aquatic true bugs. They are sometimes confused with backswimmers (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) because they have the same general shape. However, backswimmers swim upside down in the water and are colored with the wings lighter than the leg area. Adults are relatively small and soft bodied.
Perspiration is just one of many body fluids that pollute swimming pool water. Perspiration contains sodium, magnesium, calcium salts, urea, creatine and amino acids.
All of these components are high in nitrogen. A build up of nitrogen causes algae to grow, and in large concentrations can be toxic because of the associated ammonia nitrogen.
The pH range of perspiration is 4.0 to 6.8.