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Big Bang Theory

for Chemistry at Millard West High School

Kathern Wendt

on 29 August 2012

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Transcript of Big Bang Theory

The Big Bang Theory
Theory A theory is a tested and testable concept which is used to explain and predict phenomena. Defintion: What is this? What does it show? What are some of the elements you
encounter in your everyday life? Where do these
come from? ? "The Big Bang theory is a very successful family of theories which explain what we see and has made several predictions which have been confirmed." This being said, science is always attempting to make better predictions. There may be a theory which better explains the universe however, such a theory has not currently been described and tested to the fullest extent of scientific inquiry. How is it arranged? Introduction to Astronomy Hydrogen Nitrogen Carbon Oxygen Aluminum Iron Gold Questions to be explored: What is the Big Bang?
How old is the universe?
What was the universe like before the Bang?
What happened from the Bang to Present Day?
What elements were formed during the Big Bang?
How does the Big Bang produce matter?
How are other elements formed?
The student will be able to describe the formation of the universe using the Big Bang Theory.

The student will be able to recognize that stars, like the Sun, transform matter into energy by nuclear reactions which leads to the formation of other elements. Objectives Review What is the Big Bang? 1.) The Big Bang Theory states: The universe started with a massive explosion. This explosion happened at a finite time. The universe before the bang was
extremely hot
incredibly dense
under huge amounts of pressure How old is the universe? 2.) The universe is about

13.7 billion years old
What was the universe like before the Bang? 3.) Everything that became the universe as we know it was contained in a singularity smaller than the period at the end of a sentence. This singularity is made of force and energy. Scientists used WMAP, or a baby picture of the universe, to better describe the state of the universe before the bang. Baby Picture of the Universe Before the Big Bang, the known forces were united in a "super force." One of the members of this super force was gravity. When gravity began to split off from the super force, the result was... Expansion Expansion is not explosion... So, what happened to the universe from "the bang" to present day? 4.) What elements were
produced during the
Big Bang? 5.) But wait, how are elements (or matter) produced from a tiny ball of force and energy? Equation of Mass–Energy Equivalence The answer to this question comes from Albert Einstein... This equation states that energy (E) equals mass (m) times the speed of light (c) in a vacuum squared. This is important since matter is anything that has mass and occupies volume. This equation shows how energy
can be transformed into mass. By now, you are most likely curious how the other 115 elements were produced if the Big Bang gave us only hydrogen, helium, and lithium. The rest of the elements in the universe are created in stars. This means any element larger than lithium (and even most of the lithium in the universe) is star dust. This process of a star producing elements heavier than hydrogen is called stellar nucleosynthesis. When talking about nucleosynthesis,
it is easier to talk about which elements
are produced by a particular type of
star or stellar event. This type of star produces larger
elements than smaller stars can Small Stars This type of star produces

oxygen Small stars produce these
elements through a process
called fusion. There is a slight problem--massive stars can only produce elements through iron. Almost every other element
will come from a massive
star's death. Such an event
is called a supernova. Supernovae do two important things: Create heavier elements disperse the elements that were produced by the event So, to review where we have been, let's go back to our exploration questions from the beginning... Definition
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