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Wars of Religion, Pirates, and Tulips

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Andrea Odiorne

on 10 December 2018

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Transcript of Wars of Religion, Pirates, and Tulips

Protestant Reformation
God, Glory, Gold
State - making
Philip II (House of Habsburg/Catholic) - Spanish Armada
English Civil War (Warring Protestants)- Execution of Charles I
Thirty Years War - (Catholic vs. Protestant)
Louis XIV - conquer Europe in the name of Catholicism
Ivan III of Moscow
Byzantine - Eastern Orthodox vs. Muslim Turks
czars and czarinas (from Caesar) came to rule an empire that stretched from Poland to Alaska - 130 million people Overview Religious
Economic - The Price Revolution
Dizzying inflation
Rising population: 50 to 90 million (1450–1600)
Food supplies remained constant
Influx of New World silver 17th Century Crisis Religious - not Protestant enough for Puritans
Financial - Charles I - War with Scotland
Short Parliament - financial reform
Long Parliament - arrested leading members English Civil War (1642-1648) Oliver Cromwell - "Lord Protector" "New Model Army" Restoration - 1660
Charles II - popular sentiment Religious Liberty vs. Political Freedom Martin Luther
(Germany and Scandinavia) "I would never have thought that such a storm would rise from Rome over one simple scrap of paper..." (Martin Luther)
The highest authority for an individual’s conscience was the truth of Scripture
Luther maintained that the pope and all clerics were merely fallible men
Nobility resented tax free Church lands and desired autonomy
Peasants saw opportunity for social reform Calvinism
(Geneva) Legal relationship with God – laws obeyed without question
Ethic of self-control was predicated on the notion that we should all work hard at our calling. France Henry IV (r. 1589–1610)
Converted to Catholicism
1598: the Edict of Nantes
Catholicism established as the official religion
Huguenots allowed to worship, attend universities, and serve as public officials – official document of religious tolerance
Weakened over the course of the 17th century until revoked by Louis XIV Challenges to the Church
(16th century) Political philosophers
Humanism and the Spirit of Free Inquiry
Rejected idea that popes were superior to kings
No need to reform the Church and Christianity – secular theory of the state Challenges to the Church
(16th century) Corruption
People in towns and cities exposed immorality of clergy
Bad popes
Indulgences Religious Differences ca. 1560 Religious Differences ca. 1560 Catholic strongholds
French Calvinists – Huguenots
Italy - Small protestant sects
Spain - Inquisition
Germany – princes determined religion of their subjects
England – political issue rather than theological
Scotland – Calvinist – Mary Queen of Scots Economic Background The Price Revolution
Large-scale farmers, landlords, and some merchants profited
For laborers, wages rose more slowly than prices
The rich got richer, the poor got poorer
Governments responded by raising taxes Peace of Augsburg (1555) Cuius regio, eius religio (as the ruler, so the religion)
Although each prince had the right to determine the religion of his subjects, it happened that Lutheranism continued to spread into catholic-held lands.
By 1609, the Holy Roman Empire had fragmented into two hostile alliances -- the Protestant Union and the Catholic League. The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) Bohemia
Made up of Germans and Czechs, Lutherans, Calvinists and Catholics living in relative peace
Ferdinand II
King of Bohemia 1617
Cuius regio, eius religio (as the ruler, so the religion)
Zealous Catholic
Habsburg (in line for title of Holy Roman Emperor)
May 1618 – imperial governors thrown from window of Prague castle, Ferdinand deposed, crown offered to Frederick V - defenestration The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) Bohemia
Protestant Union – Frederick
Catholic League – Ferdinand (Holy Roman Emperor)
Battle of White Mountain - November 1620
Ferdinand wins – recatholocizes territory
Czech nobility lost everything
Economy in ruin
Half of the population killed by war or plague The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) Gustavus Adolphus (1594–1632)
Lutheran king of Sweden
Marched into Germany (1630), championed the Protestants
Earned the support of Catholic princes
Wished to see religious balance restored
Did not want to submit to Ferdinand II
Subsidized by France
1632: Adolphus killed in battle The Thirty Years’ War (1635–1648) France and Sweden against Austria and Spain
Cardinal Richelieu
accepted any allies regardless of religion
wanted to expand French influence across Europe
The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Marked the emergence of France as a predominant continental power
Holy Roman Empire lost one quarter of its inhabitants and its fragmentation into hundreds of small states delayed economic recovery as well as any hope for a unified Germany France The French wars of religion (1562–1598)
By 1562, Calvinists comprised 10 to 20 percent of the population of France
Attracted urban townspeople, aristocratic women
Won over their husbands, who usually controlled large private armies The French wars of religion
(1562–1598) Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (August 24, 1572)
Two to three thousand Parisian Protestants slaughtered in a popular protest
Massacres spread across France killing an estimated 70,000 protestants
Pope responded with a Mass in which he celebrated a Catholic victory
England and Spain England
Scottish rebelled against Mary Queen of Scots (supported by Spain)
Elizabeth I – (initially friends with Philip II of Spain)
combined Protestantism and Nationalism
naval contests in the Atlantic with Catholic Spain
Spanish Armada - 1588
ultimate decline of Spain as a world power?
English Civil War Age of Religious Wars, 1560-1715 Introduction The primacy of religion
Religion and politics
Religious wars Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. [Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, 1844] Challenges to the Church
(16th century) Merchants, Bankers and Artisans
resented the fact that local bishops of the Church controlled all of their commercial and economic activities
development of a secular concept of work and acquisition?
Revolts against political, economic, social and religious authority
Heretics Results The Reformation smashed the medieval synthesis and destroyed the unity of the Christian matrix.
Did the Reformation justify the “spirit of capitalism”? (Sociologist Max Weber) Economic Background The Price Revolution
Dizzying inflation
Rising population: 50 to 90 million (1450–1600)
Food supplies remained constant
Influx of New World silver The German Wars of Religion
(c. 1540–1555) Charles V – Holy Roman Emperor
Attempts to reestablish Catholic unity failed
Catholic princes feared Charles would curb their independence The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) Began as a war between Catholics and Protestants
Ended as an international struggle transcending religion The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) Warring States
Catholic League
Ferdinand (Holy Roman Emperor)
Spanish Hapsburgs - religious
Protestant League
King of Denmark – 1625 – territorial motivation
Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583-1634)
Czech nobility
Catholic – Jesuit college/cooperator
Army of over 100,000 mercenaries
Gave important positions in army to protestants
Skillful politician – comparably indifferent in religion The French wars of religion
(1562–1598) 1562: Huguenots against Henry II and the duke of Guise
Guise (Catholic family with ties to Spanish crown)
Warfare between Protestants and Catholics dragged on until 1572 when an attempt at conciliation was made
Henry of Navarre (Protestant) to marry the Catholic sister of the king
Catherine de Medici panicked and urged the Catholics to murder the Protestant wedding guests The revolt of the Netherlands
(1566–1609) Philip II of Spain (r. 1556–1598)
Spain was the greatest power in 16th century Europe
Used the Netherlands as a source of income to pursue Spanish affairs
Southern Netherlands (Dutch)
Grew prosperous from trade and manufacture
Made up of Lutherans, Anabaptists and Calvinists
Protestant mobs attacked Catholic church
Spanish government raised taxes in loyal provinces to maintain army
Protestants later (by 1575) united under William of Orange vs. Philip
1609 – northern Dutch Republic
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