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Biochemistry Pathways - The Big Picture

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by

Derek Elsby

on 27 January 2014

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Transcript of Biochemistry Pathways - The Big Picture

Fructose-6-phosphate
ATP
allosteric inhibition
G-6-P
inhibition
Phosphophenolpyruvate
ATP inhibition
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
Aldolase
Dihydroxyacetone phosphate
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
2-Phosphoglycerate
1,3- Biphosphoglycerate
3-Phosphoglycerate
2-Phosphoglycerate
Phosphophenolpyruvate
Step 1
ATP
ADP
ATP
ADP
Step 3
ATP
ADP
Step 7
ATP
ADP
ATP
ADP
ATP
ADP
PYRUVATE
PYRUVATE
NAD+
+
Pi
NADH

+

H+
NAD+
+
Pi
NADH

+

H+
Glycolysis
Hexokinase
Glycogenesis
Glycogen Synthesis
GLUCOSE
ATP
ADP
Glucokinase
Glucose-1-phosphate
UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
Uridine triphosphate
(UTP)
UDP-glucose
GLYCOGEN
Glycogen synthase
Glycogenin
Glucose Breackdown
UDP
Branching enzyme
Glycogen phosphorylase
Debranching enzyme
Phosphofructokinase
+

Mg
Pyruvate kinase
Pyruvate kinase
Glucose-1-phosphate
HPO
4
Phosphoglucomutase
Phosphoglucomutase
Pyruvate carboxylase
GTP
GDP
Phosphophenolpyruvate
carboxylase
CO
2
Fructose 1, 6-biphosphatase
Gluconeogenesis
Glucose Synthesis
Glucose-6-phosphatase
LACTATE
Phosphoglucomutase
Enolase
Lactate dehydrogenase
Phosphate Ion
PPi
Pyrophosphate
H+
Key Regulation Point
Key Regulation Point
Key Regulation Point
Key Regulation Point
ATP, G-6-P
allosteric inhibition
AMP
allosteric stimulation
Key Regulation Point
ATP, G-6-P
allosteric stimulation
AMP
allosteric inhibition
GLYCEROL
PYRUVATE
PYRUVATE
NAD
NADH
+
Regeneration of is the main purpose of anaerobic respiration. This allows glycolysis to continue.
NAD
+
NAD
NADH
+
CoA-SH
CO
2
Net Yield
ATP
NADH
2x
2x
Key Regulation Point
Glucose-6-phosphate
Glucose-6-phosphate
Citrate
Iso-citrate
Pyruvate dehydrogenase
complex
CoA-SH
H O
2
NAD
NADH
+
CO
2
NAD
NADH
+
CO
2
H
+
H
+
Succinate
CoA-SH
GTP
GDP
Pi
ATP
ADP
FAD
FADH
+
2
H O
2
Fumarate
NAD
NADH
+
H
+
GLUCOSE
Oxaloacetate
ATP
ADP
3-Phosphoglycerate
1,3- Biphosphoglycerate
NAD+
+
Pi
NADH

+

H+
Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
AMP
allosteric inhibition
Key Regulation Point
ATP
allosteric stimulation
AMP
allosteric stimulation
H O
2
H O
2
H O
2
Glucose-6-phosphate
Pi
H O
2
Pi
ATP
allosteric stimulation
Endoplasmic Reticulum
CO
2
Mitochondrial
Matrix
ATP
ADP
Net Yield
(from 2 turns)
ATP
NADH
2x
8x
2x
FADH
2
6x
CO
2
An Amphibolic Pathway
Both Anabolic and Catabolic reactions

Can I Destroy Dead Girls
Depending on How they Died
Condensation
Isomerisation
Dehydrogenase (Redox)
Dehydrogenase (Redox)
GTP synthesis
Dehydrogenase (Redox)
Hydration
Dehydrogenase (Redox)
A Clown In Kilimanjaro
Sings Songs For Me Only
Glycogenolysis
Glycogen Breakdown
Anaerobic
Pyruvate Metabolism
Malate
The Malate Shuttle
Key Regulation Point
ATP
,

Acetyle-CoA
and

NADH
inhibition
ATP
,
Succinyl-CoA
and

NADH
inhibition
Citrate synthase
Key Regulation Point
ATP
and

NADH
inhibition
Iso-citrate dehydrogenase
Key Regulation Point
ADP
and

NAD
stimulation
ATP
,

succinyl-CoA

and

NADH
inhibition
α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Key Regulation Point
Oxaloacetate
PYRUVATE
Anaplerotic Reaction
Reaction that replenishes one of the TCA
intermediates
e.g Pyruvate + CO2 + ATP --> Oxaloacetate

Succinate dehydrogenase
a.k.a. Complex II
of the ETC
Oxidation
Therefore, one glucose molecule produces 38
ATP
Hydration
Thyolysis
(Cleavage)

Oxidation
FAD
FADH
+
2
NAD
NADH
+
CoA
Fatty Acid Breakdown
Beta-Oxidation
Reduction
Dehydration
Condensation
Reduction
Fatty Acid
Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
Malonyl ACP
Porphyrin Synthesis
Haemoglobin or Chlorophyll
Succinyl-CoA
Amino Acid Synthesis
Glutamine, Glutamate, Purines
and other Amino Acids
α-Ketoglutarate
Acetyle CoA
Amino Acid Synthesis
Glutamine, Glutamate, Purines
and other Amino Acids
Pentose Phosphate Pathway
Glucose-6-phosphate
Ribulose-5-phosphate
Insulin +
Insulin +
Insulin +
Glucagon +
Adrenaline +
Insulin -
Charles Says
I Didn't
Kill Diana

Tri-Carboxylic Acid
Cycle

Aerobic Respiration
Acetyle CoA
Acetyle CoA
Full transcript