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Palestine 101: 1897-the Nakba
Transcript of Palestine 101: 1897-the Nakba
political, separatist movement, not religious
World Zionist Organization (1897)
Jewish Colonial Trust (land buying)
Jewish National Fund Political Zionism Ottoman Palestine and Balfour Decleration 1917 letter from Lord Balfour (British politician) to a wealthy Zionist leader
"His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." Exile Zionist Colonial Machine ...we always sympathized profoundly with the persecuted Jews and their misfortunes in other countries... but there is wide difference between such sympathy and the acceptance of such a nation...ruling over us and disposing of our affairs Lobbied British politicians to provide the backing for a "Jewish Homeland" and eventual handover of Mandate Palestine.
Secured international funds for immigration and settlement of Palestine
Armed new settlers and produced highly organized militias Haganah/Irgun/Lehi-Stern Jewish paramilitary organization formed in 1920
preceeded by Hashomer (the watchmen) 1909 Irgun (1931) offshoot of Haganah, started by Ze'ev Jabotinsky. Jabotinsky stated: Lehi- A 2nd offshoot that primarily focused on the British occupying forces. Demographics:
97% Sunni Muslim, Druze and Christian
3% Jewish; 1/3 native, 2/3 foreign
under Ottoman control since 16th century Jaffa 1913 Zionism continued Where to settle?
Land without a people for a people without a land
mixed population of Arabs, Jews, Christians, Muslims; didn't really count as a true nation "Ottomanism"
Jewish opposition to Zionism
Sephardi Jews in Palestine
Sephardi-Jewish-Zionist-Palestinian-Arab was not necessarily a contradiction Alternatives to Political Zionism Colonial Settlement first Aliyah (1882-1903)
5,000 Jews in 22 colonies by 1903
second Aliyah (1904-1914)
40,000 immigrants (6%--8% of pop)
Hebrew labor, David Ben-Gurion
Judaism as political movement, not religious group
Segregation of Zionist Jews and Arabs British Contradictory Promises Determined arbitrary levels of control over Levant between French and British
French: Lebanon, parts of Syria
British: Iraq (Baghdad, Basra) and Gaza
Palestine? Sikes-Picot Agreement 1916
Sharif Husayn ibn ‘Ali (1854-1930), Caliph of Mecca
quest for an entirely separate Arab state, Ottoman decentralization
British advantage to Ottoman Empire crumbling, agreement to give Husayn an Arab state in exchange for help to de-Ottomanize confusion over vague borders. Was Palestine part of Syria? Husayn--McMahon correspondence: 1916-1918
Plan Dalet Third Aaliyah Between 1919-1923 40,000 arrived in Palestine...45% from Russia, 31% from Poland, 5% from Romania and three percent from Lithuania. Palestine 101: 1897-The Nakba Tensions Rise Nabi Musa riots 1920 Haganah 1920 The Zionist Commission in April 1918 was granted a semi-independent body by the British Foreign Office Soon after its arrival , the commission asked for Hebrew = Arabic, Jews in Gov't
Also Jewish government employees were granted higher pay than 'Arabs because the comission argued, "as uropeans they needed higher salaries to live on" Zionists were also permited to fly the zionist flag, yet Palestinian Flag was prohibited Bethlehem, c. 1900 Jerusalem c. 1910 Hebron Massacre 1929 67 Jews Killed 195 Arabs and 34 Jews were sentenced by the courts for crimes related to the 1929 riots.
Death sentences were handed down to 17 Arabs and two Jews, of which 3 Arabs were hung Aaliyah Bet immigration (1933–1948) Peel Commission (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr White Paper 1936 GW Students for Justice in Palestine presents: Jewish Immigrants to Palestine
1941 4,592 Territory Arab and other population % Arab and other Jewish population % Jewish Total population
Arab State 725,000 99% 10,000 1% 735,000
Jewish State 407,000 45% 498,000 55% 905,000
International 105,000 51% 100,000 49% 205,000
Total 1,237,000 67% 608,000 33% 1,845,000 UN Partition Plan Reference Towns Villages Tribes Total
Morris 10 342 17 369
Khalidi 1 400 17 418
Abu Sitta 13 419 99 531 According to Benny Morris the Plan's execution lasted about eight weeks, beginning April 2.
About 100 Arab villages were conquered and emptied of their inhabitants, and almost all Jewish settlements enjoyed territorial continuity, with the notable exception of Jerusalem.
Many Arab leaders left the country and local leadership collapsed.
On the Arab side, Jewish attacks and offensives precipitated a mass exodus of 250,000–300,000 people. By 1 May 1948, two weeks before the Israeli Declaration of Independence, nearly 175,000 Palestinians had already fled NAKBA & PALESTINIAN EXODUS Destroyed Villages October 1948 - march 1949 "As long as the Arabs preserve a gleam of hope that they will succeed in getting rid of us, nothing in the world can cause them to relinquish this hope, precisely because they are not a rubble but a living people. And a living people will be ready to yield on such fateful issues only when they give up all hope of getting rid of the Alien Settlers..." Section I. The Constitution: It stated that with over 450,000 Jews having now settled in the mandate, the Balfour Declaration about "a national home for the Jewish people" had been met and called for an independent Palestine established within 10 years, governed jointly by Arabs and Jews Section II. Immigration: Jewish immigration to Palestine under the British Mandate was to be limited to 75,000 over the next five years, after which it would depend on Arab consent Despite British efforts to curb the illegal immigration, during the 14 years of its operation, 110,000 Jews immigrated to Palestine