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HIV/AIDS Prevention & Treatments

A presentation on HIV/AIDS and its treatments as well as its prevention strategies. This presentation is meant to spread awareness and educate people on how to protect themselves from the dreadful disease known as HIV/AIDS.
by

Tamer Shaheen

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of HIV/AIDS Prevention & Treatments

Background Information on HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies and Treatment
In Conclusion...
THE END
Introduction
Meet Victoria & Rosa
BY: Tamer Shaheen
HIV/AIDS Prevention & Treatments
Presentation Outline:
Short Summary of HIV/AIDS
Prevention Strategies for HIV/AIDS
Treatments for HIV/AIDS
Benefits & Drawbacks of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment
HIV in Canada (2005-2011)
Most important details on HIV/AIDS Prevention (Very Important for maintaining healthy lifestyle)
References
The End
Summary of HIV/AIDS
Over time, HIV can destroy so many of your CD4 cells that your body can't fight infections and diseases anymore. When that happens, HIV infection can lead to AIDS.
What is HIV?
HIV is an abbreviation for:

H –
Human
(meaning that this particular virus can only infect human beings)

I –
Immunodeficiency
(meaning that HIV weakens your immune system by destroying important cells that fight diseases and infections; this is called a "deficient" immune system which can't protect you)0

V –
Virus
(meaning that HIV is a virus that can only reproduce itself by taking over a cell in the body of its host)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is quite similar to other viruses such as the "flu" or the common cold. But there is an important difference between them; over time your immune system can clear most viruses out of your body. That isn't the case with HIV.
The human immune system can't seem to get rid of it. Scientists are still trying to figure out why.
HIV can hide for long periods of time in the cells of your body and then it attacks a key part of your immune system such as your T-cells or CD4 cells. The human body needs these cells to fight infections and diseases, but HIV invades them, uses them to make more copies of itself, and then destroys them.
What is AIDS?
HIV can become AIDS if not given proper treatment
Signs/Symptoms of HIV
A person will be diagnosed with AIDS if they have one or more specific OIs, certain cancers, or a very low number of CD4 cells (this would be very bad because these cells will not be capable of doing their job of fighting infections and diseases in the body).
AIDS is an abbreviation for:

A –
Acquired
(which means that AIDS is not something you inherit from your parents, it is acquired after birth)

I –
Immuno
(which means that the human body's immune system includes all the organs and cells that work to fight off any infections or diseases that might enter the body)

D –
Deficiency
(which means that you get AIDS when your immune system is "deficient," or isn't working the way it should)

S –
Syndrome
(A syndrome is a wide range of symptoms and signs of disease. AIDS is a syndrome, and not a single disease, because it is a complex illness that contains a collection of complications and symptoms)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is the final stage of the HIV infection. People at this stage of HIV disease have badly damaged immune systems, which put them at risk for opportunistic infections (OIs).
OIs are infections that can take advantage of your weakened immune system, and they can cause devastating illnesses
If a person has AIDS, they will need lots of medical attention and treatment to prevent death.
Scientists believe HIV came from a particular kind of chimpanzee in Western Africa.
It is most likely that humans came in contact with HIV when they hunted and ate infected animals.
Recent studies prove that HIV may have jumped from monkeys to humans as far back as the late 1800s.
Where did it come from?
Chimpanzee
IT BECOMES
HIV Virus in your Body
HOW DO YOU GET HIV?
HIV/AIDS cannot be Transmitted through...
HIV is found in specific human body fluids. If any of those fluids enter your body, you can become infected with HIV.
The following fluids can contain high levels of HIV:
Blood
Semen (cum)
Pre-seminal fluid (pre-cum)
Breast milk
Vaginal fluids
Rectal (anal) mucous
HIV lives and reproduces in blood and other body fluids.
These fluids are only transmitted through
Symptoms vary depending on the individual
#1
#2
#3
But...
If you are healthy and not HIV+ like Victoria and Rosa and you are sure of that.
Then...
you might one look at a few
prevention Strategies
to keep it that way.
Prevention Strategies
(Reduce your Risk)
Having healthy skin is an excellent method to prevent HIV and other viruses and bacteria as well. HIV cannot enter the body through healthy skin.
You need to ask your sexual partners questions like "Have you been tested for HIV?", "When was the last time you had an HIV test?" or "What were the results of your HIV test?" to make sure that your partner does not have HIV. These questions are highly significant as they will tell you if your partner has HIV, because many people have it but it doesn't look like they do.
Sexual Risk Factors
Being Abstinent which means not to have sex. Sex (anal, oral, or vaginal) is the main way that HIV is transmitted. If you aren't having sexual contact, you are 100% protected from getting HIV in that way.
Being monogamous which means that you are in a sexual relationship with only one person and both of you are having sex only with each other. This reduces your risk of getting HIV but monogamy won't protect you completely unless you know for sure that both you and your partner are not infected with HIV.
Get tested and know your status as well as your partner's status, knowing both statuses is very important for both your health and the health of your partner. Talking about your HIV status might be difficult or uncomfortable but it's important to start the discussion BEFORE you have sex to prevent yourself from getting HIV. IF YOU DON'T KNOW YOUR PARTNER'S STATUS, THEN ASK.
If you have more than one sex partner, it is recommends that you be tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) every 3-6 months. In addition, to use condoms consistently and correctly. To reduce your risk of getting HIV or other STIs, you must use a new condom with every act of sex. You also have to use condoms correctly, to keep them from slipping off or breaking.
If you are HIV+ just like Victoria and Rosa, then it is not a big problem, Just DO NOT give up on yourself.
There are plenty of treatments to help you with HIV and many medications to help slow down the process.
When one Partner is HIV+
You can lower the risk of transmitting HIV to your partner if you are on antiretroviral therapy which means that you are taking all your medications, on time, this will help to lower the HIV virus load in your body fluids and decrease the chance that you will transmit HIV to your partner.
But, even if you have a low HIV virus load in your blood fluids, you can still transmit HIV to your sex partner. So it is important to always use a condom and practice safe sex. In addition, if you inject drugs, never share syringes, water, or drug preparation equipment with each other since HIV-infected blood can be transmitted through them.
Talk with your partner about condoms and safer sex practices. If you are in an ongoing relationship with your partner, support him/her in taking all of his/her HIV medications.
This will reduce the risk that HIV can be transmitted.
If you are the HIV-positive partner in a mixed-status relationship...
If you are the HIV-negative partner in a mixed-status relationship...
Substance Abuse/Use
PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS (PrEP)
This medication prevents HIV from making copies of itself and turning into an infection that’s spread throughout your body.
Studies have shown that PrEP provides a high level of protection against getting HIV for anyone who is sexually active.
PrEP medicines can help keep the virus from establishing a permanent infection, it is a way for people who are at very high risk of getting HIV to lower their risk by taking a daily pill.
PrEP is only meant for people who are at very high risk of getting HIV because they may often be exposed to the virus for example, someone who is HIV-negative but has an HIV-positive partner and doesn’t consistently use condoms.
Pregnancy & Childbirth
HIV+ mothers can transmit HIV to their babies. This is called “mother-to-child transmission.” An HIV+ mother can transmit HIV to her baby in three ways:
During pregnancy
During vaginal childbirth
Through breastfeeding
But with proper treatment and prevention strategies, HIV+ mothers can significantly reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to their babies. For example, antiretroviral drugs can protect babies from HIV infection.
When an HIV+ mother receives the drugs during pregnancy, labor, and delivery and has her baby by Caesarian section; and also avoids breastfeeding, the chance of passing the infection to her baby is less than 2%
Babies born to HIV-positive mothers should be tested at three different times at least,:
At 14 to 21 days after birth
At 1 to 2 months of age
At 3 to 6 months of age
These tests detect very small quantities of the HIV virus in the child's body.
Very Important Prevention Strategy of HIV/AIDS
Treatments
There are currently five different "classes" of HIV drugs. Each class of drug attacks the virus at different points in its life cycle so if you are taking HIV medicine, you will generally take 3 different antiretroviral drugs (ART) from 2 different classes.
Unfortunately, there is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but their are medications to help prevent HIV from becoming very dangerous
Medicine and Drugs for HIV/AIDS
This type of medical treatment is standard for HIV care and it’s very important. That’s because no drug can cure HIV, and taking a single drug, by itself, won’t stop HIV from harming you. Taking 3 different HIV medicines does the best job of controlling the amount of virus in your body and protecting your immune system.
Taking more than one drug also protects you against HIV drug resistance. When HIV reproduces, it can make copies of itself that are mutated and these mutations may not respond to the drugs you take to control your HIV. If you follow the 3-drug medical treatment, the HIV in your body will be less likely to make new copies that don’t respond to your HIV medicines.
Each HIV medication is pretty powerful by itself, however the key to treating your HIV disease successfully is to pick the right combination of drugs from the five different classes of HIV medicines. The five classes are:
Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)
: This drug blocks HIV’s ability to use a special type of enzyme called reverse transcriptase to correctly create new DNA that the virus needs to make copies of itself.
Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)
: This drug prevents the enzyme, reverse transcriptase, itself to from functioning correctly.
Protease Inhibitors (PIs)
: When HIV replicates inside your cells, it creates long strands of its own genetic material. These long strands have to be cut into shorter strands in order for HIV to create more copies of itself. The enzyme that acts to cut up these long strands is called protease. Protease inhibitors (stoppers), which is the drug given, blocks this enzyme and prevents those long strands of genetic material from being cut up into functional pieces.
Entry/Fusion Inhibitors
: These medications work to block the virus from ever entering your cells in the first place
Examples of Medications/DruGs
Examples of NNRTIs, PIs, Entry/Fusion Inhibitors
Examples of NRTIs and Combination Drugs
Everyday Activities to Prevent HIV from Becoming very Dangerous
Clinical Trials
A clinical trial is a research study with human volunteers. The purpose of a clinical trial is to answer specific health questions. Many clinical trials are done to see if a new drug or technique is safe and effective for people to use.
There are some good reasons to consider participating in a clinical trial. You could:
Gain access to new treatments not available to the public
Receive expert medical care at the best healthcare facilities
Have a chance to help others by contributing to medical research
Get experimental medications (They may even be free!)
Benefits of Clinical Trials
risks of Clinical Trials
But before you participate in a clinical trial, you need to consider some of the risks:
Experimental drugs may not have any benefits or may even be harmful.
New drugs may have unanticipated side effects.
Protocols may require a lot of your time and frequent trips to the study site.
Immunizations
Immunizations (vaccines) provide immunity against particular diseases such as HIV. “Immunity” means that your immune system has developed a way of protecting you from a specific disease by creating antibodies to that disease.
Immunizations can come in several forms: injections, drops, or sprays
Immunizations can help protect people with HIV from serious illnesses
These are some recommended immunizations for HIV-positive adults:
Hepatitis A and B
Influenza (Injection, not the nasal spray)
Polysaccharide Pneumococcal (pneumonia)
Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis
There are many more immunizations besides the ones mentioned above that may be recommended to a person based on their age or risk factors
Also, there are a few immunizations for people living with HIV/AIDS that are not recommended for them for specific reasons (not every medication will work for everyone)
Drops
Injection
Spray
Mental Health
The hardest part of having mental health conditions during HIV/AIDS is that you may not feel like seeking treatment or going to your appointments. If you are feeling this way, try asking friends/family to help you make and keep your appointments, and share these feelings with your mental health provider as well.
Many HIV+ people may face mental health issues because of their HIV+ status, the mental health issues can come from many things such as:
experiencing a loss of employment or worries about whether you will be able to perform your work as you did before
having to tell others about your status
managing your HIV medicines
going through changes in your physical appearance or abilities due to HIV/AIDS
facing the stigma and discrimination associated with HIV/AIDS
many more as well
Relation between HIV/AIDS and Mental Health
Finding Treatment
When you follow through, your medical & mental health providers can help you feel better, and can improve your chances of successful HIV treatment.

Always remember that you are NOT ALONE
EXAMPLES
Follow the Prevention Strategies and Treatments mentioned Above and you will be Safe!!!
Start treatment with antiretroviral medicines (HAART) or other types of treatments before HIV-related symptoms develop.
Delay treatment with antiretroviral medicines (HAART) or other types of treatments until HIV-related symptoms or AIDS develops.
OR
Your choices are:
#1
#2
The decision about whether to start antiretroviral medicines (HAART) or other types of treatments depends on a person's personal feelings and the medical facts surrounding the issue
Delays or prevents the weakening of the immune system
Benefits of Treatment
Slows or prevents the progression of HIV to AIDS
Lowers the risk of the HIV/AIDS virus to form a resistance to the medications/drugs being taken as treatment
May decrease the risk of transmitting the HIV virus to another person through sexual contact, childbirth, drug use, etc.
#1
#2
#3
#4
The earlier the treatment, the better since you can prevent HIV from getting worse because it has been treated earlier
#5
#6
Very important because it would allow our immune system to fight back against the virus since it will continue to be strong
Very Important because, even though HIV is a serious, dangerous illness; AIDS is much worse and much more dangerous than HIV
Very Important because if the virus is able to resist the treatments, then they would be useless and this will cause the virus to have a very dangerous effect in your body than it already has
Very Important because if an HIV+ person would have sexual contact, have a child, or use drugs; the risks of transmitting it to another person would dramatically decrease, which would decrease the total HIV infections in our community/society
The HIV/AIDS treatments increases the ability of the human body to achieve and maintain control of the HIV viral replication.
HIV/AIDS treatment causes a person to experience significant drops in the HIV viral loads in his body, often to the point that the virus can no longer be detected in their blood with currently available tests. This is the goal of treatment.
Very important because it avoids developing AIDS, or recovering from the symptoms of AIDS, which allows the HIV+ person to enjoy a return to better health.
Very Important as it avoids developing AIDS, or it recovers from the symptoms of AIDS, allowing the HIV+ person to enjoy a return to better health.
Also, allows for the body to have a stable or slowly increasing CD4+ cell count.
Also, decreases the number of opportunistic infections, (more common in people who have weakened immune systems) such as certain types of pneumonia.
Drawbacks of Treatment
HIV/AIDS treatments may have negative effects on the person's quality of life, such as the cost of medicines
HIV/AIDS treatments may have serious problems and side effects related to the treatments or the medications such as nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, etc.
The development of the HIV virus resistance to the medicines increases as you take the medications for a long time which causes the medications to be useless
Without taking HIV/AIDS treatments, this preserves the maximum number of antiretroviral medications' options when HIV disease risk is at its highest
HIV/AIDS treatments might cause unknown problems since not all the risks or symptoms of the medications/ treatments towards HIV/AIDS that might develop are known
The cost of medicines may cause a financial hardship for the person with HIV, since the medicine might be very expensive or they keep on buying the medication multiple times
The treatments give you a greater chance of serious medicine-related problems and side effects which could be more lethal and more dangerous than HIV/AIDS.
Earlier development of resistance to the medications occurs by the HIV virus if viral suppression is not complete.
Treatments cause a Limitation of future antiretroviral treatment options.
#1
#2
#3
#5
#4
Viral Suppression is slowing down the function or replication of a virus.
This is the biggest issue when people with HIV/AIDS have to decide whether or not use the medication/treatments since they do not want to get a painful symptom that might very dangerous or lethal (causing death)
Benefits and Drawbacks of HIV/AIDS Prevention & Treatments
Benefits of Preventions Strategies for HIV/AIDS
Before a person could have got HIV/AIDS, he/she could have prevented it from ever happening.
Almost all medicines have side effects, including HIV medications:
Short Term Side Effects:
Anemia (abnormality in red blood cells)
Diarrhea
Dizziness
Fatigue
Headaches
Nausea and vomiting
Nerve problems
Rash
#6
Lipodystrophy
– A problem in the way your body produces, uses, and stores fat.
Insulin Resistance
– A serious condition that can lead to abnormalities in your blood sugar levels, which may lead to diabetes.
Lipid abnormalities
– A serious condition that can lead to abnormalities in lipids, which increases the cholesterol levels in the human body
Decrease in bone density
– Increase your risk of injury and fractures.
Lactic acidosis
– This can cause several problems like muscle aches, liver failure and many other issues as well.
Long Term Side Effects:
There several benefits in preventing HIV/AIDS, such as preventing all the symptoms that you might get from HIV/AIDS, not having to take medications that could cause serious or painful symptoms and there are many other benefits as well.
The main benefit for the preventions strategies is that you will
NOT GET HIV/AIDS
and you will not have to put up with it at all .
Drawbacks of Preventions Strategies for HIV/AIDS
There are no drawbacks or disadvantages in preventing HIV/AIDS
So, use the prevention strategies mentioned in this presentation to prevent yourself
The best way to prevent HIV/AIDS is to be abstinent, since sexual contact is the #1 way to transmit HIV/AIDS
Immune system protecting body from virus
Our immune system is very important since it protects us from viruses & infections
This video explains when HIV becomes AIDS
HIV/AIDS virus in your body
Treatments are decreasing the risk of HIV Transmission through:
A youtube video animation that explains how a virus invades your body as well as viral replication
If your CD4 cell count is high and your viral load is low, then your medicines are doing a good job controlling the virus
Waiting is not such a great idea because the HIV virus could get worse
Other antiretroviral medication options
A Youtube Video on Facing AIDS: Medication, Side Effects & HIV Virus Resistance

(The 3 most important topics mentioned in my presentation to help you stay safe and maintain a healthy lifestyle when it comes to HIV/AIDS)
If a mother is HIV+, she could pass the HIV virus on to her child through breastfeeding, childbirth, or pregnancy.
Kissing, unless open wounds are found.

How HIV is spread:
Being abstinent (not having sex) is the safest way to avoid the HIV infection/virus.
How To Prevent
HIV:
How is HIV Transmitted
How is HIV Spread?
How to Prevent HIV?
HIV Cannot Be Transmitted By:
The most common way to contract HIV is unprotected sex
Blood, semen, vaginal fluid, breast milk
HIV can enter the human body through any openings such as the anus, cuts and wounds, etc.
Sharing needles (from vaccinations, drugs, etc.) can also spread HIV
DON’T DO DRUGS ANYWAYS, EVEN IF THE NEEDLE IS CLEAN, THEY’RE STILL TREMENDOUSLY HARMFUL AND BAD FOR YOU
Do not share sex toys or needles with your partner or with anybody
DON’T DO DRUGS. Because you may get HIV from an infected needle.
Use condoms
Have one partner and be faithful to your them (don’t cheat on them). Sex with multiple partners can increase your chance of contracting HIV
Get your partner tested for HIV.
Holding hands, hugging, coughing, sneezing, sharing utensils.
Lower risk: Oral sex lowers your risk of contracting HIV, however you can contract other STDs such as Chlamydia, Herpes, etc
To Summarize...
A 1 minute Video talking about how HIV is spread, transmitted and how it can be prevented
HIV In Canada...

Aboriginal peoples in Canada account for approximately 9% of all individuals living with HIV, and 12% of those were newly infected in 2011 by the HIV virus.
In 2008, approximately 67,000 - 69,000 were infected with HIV
In 2011, it was estimated that approximately 71,300 people were living with HIV infection in Canada
That's an 11.4 percent increase from 2008 up until 2011. Approximately 2,250 to 4,100 people were newly infected with HIV in 2011 in Canada.
In Canada, heterosexuals continue to be the group most affected by HIV/AIDS
HIV infections in Canada are divided as follows:
46.6% were homosexuals
37.2% were heterosexuals
13.7% were injection drug users
2005 - 2008
2008 - 2011
Don't let this be our future
Get educated on HIV/AIDS
Prevent yourself as well as your society/community from this horrible disease
References
For more information:
http://aids.gov/
http://www.womenshealth.gov/hiv-aids/
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/default.html
http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-sante/disease-maladie/hiv-vih-eng.php
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hc-ps/dc-ma/aids-sida-eng.php
These 3 topics mentioned are very important as they will have a huge impact on our society/environment. The reason for that is because when one person gets infected, he/she will infect another person and this will keep on going on and on, which will eventually corrupt our society. This is specifically why HIV/AIDS Treatment and Prevention is very important. We need to stop HIV from spreading in order to save the world.
How it Will Benefit Society?
Full transcript