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Transcript of Carbohydrate Catabolism
Carbohydrate: Sugars, Glucose
Catabolism: Breaking down into smaller products
Therefore..... Carbohydrate Catabolism is the
breaking down of sugars into smaller products for energy
The first step in both respiration and fermentation
Occurs in cytosol in prokaryotes and mitochondria in eukaryotes
Glucose is oxidized into 2 Pyruvic Acid molecules
Yields 4 ATP, but uses 2 ATP = net 2 ATP
Produces a lot of ATP
Does not require oxygen
Produces a little ATP
Synthesis of Acetyl-CoA
Electron Transfer Circuit
The 2 Pyruvic Acid molecules from the Glycolysis phase are transformed into:
2 molecules of acetyl-CoA
2 molecules of CO2
2 molecules of NADH
Transfers the remaining energy in the acetyl-CoA to the electron carries NAD and FAD.
Redox reactions reduce the NAD and FAD to NADH and FADH
Every acetyl-CoA yields:
6 molecules of NADH
2 molecules of FADH
Electrons move from one carrier molecule to another and finally to a final acceptor molecule (oxygen)
The electrons' energy is used to pump protons across the membrane, creating a proton gradient
Yields: H2O, CO2, and 34 ATP
Oxidizes NADH from Glycosis stage into NAD
Final electron acceptor can be nitrogen, sulfur, or CO2 -- usually nitrogen
Yields 2 ATP