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East Asia: The Interwar Years

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Kate Eckhardt

on 27 March 2017

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Transcript of East Asia: The Interwar Years

1. Indian independence movements, led by Gandhi, sought to remove British influence from their country.
2. After the fall of the Qing dynasty, Chinese nationalists and communists warred with each other over the future direction of their country.
3. Japanese industry grew tremendously. Japanese military sought expansion of territory to meet their economic needs.
During WWI, 1.3 million
fought with the British and hoped to obtain new freedoms.
Instead, Great Britain resisted...
Rowlatt Acts (1919)
- allowed Britain to deal harshly with the growing opposition.
Amristar Massacre (1919)
- 400 Indians were killed during a peaceful protest.
Japan: Background
East Asia: The Interwar Years
The Path to Independence
Salt March (1930) -
Gandhi and his followers defy British salt tax
trekked 240 miles to make salt from the sea
Government of India Act (1935)
- limited self-rule achieved for India
tension and conflict intensifies
as India moves toward independence
Indian Independence Act (1947) - independent states of India and Pakistan are created
Nationalism Triumphant in Asia
China: An Overview
major players
Nationalist Leaders
Sun Yat-sen

first President of the Republic of China (1911)
leader of the Guomindang Party (nationalists)
wrote the three principles of the people (nationalism, democracy, economic security)
Chiang Kai-shek

controversial military officer in the Guomindang Army
came to power in 1925 after Yat-sen's death
attempted to eliminate communists and establish an authoritarian government
Communist Leader
Mao Zedong
– controversial leader and co-founder of the Communist party (1921)
known as the father of communism in China
ruled communist China from 1949-1976
Timeline of Major Events
1899: Boxer Rebellion
Sun Yat-Sen gives 'Three Principles of the People' speech
1911: Qing dynasty falls
Sun Yat-Sen made President
General Yuan Shikai attempts to set up dynasty
Yuan Shikai dies
Guomindang fight local warlords
1919: May Fourth Movement - youth nationalists want change after German colony in China was given to Japan
Communist party formed
unite with Guomindang to fight warlords
Sun Yat Sen died
Chiang Kai Chek takes control of nationalist party
he wants to reunite China...but without the communists
1927: Chinese Civil war - Nationalists vs. Communists
1931: Japanese military invades Manchuria, a region of NE china (The Manchurian Invasion)
1934: The Long March - Nationalist forces encircled Communist forces, and Mao Zedong led a heroic escape - 85,000 began the 4,000 mile trek, only 8,000 survived
1937: The War of Resistance Against Japan -Japan invades China as part of its imperialist ambitions
Nanking Massacre - also known as the Rape of Nanking - Japanese soldiers allegedly massacre 300,000 and rape tens of thousands of Chinese civilians
1949: Peoples' Republic of China established; Mao Zedong is leader
Qing dynasty

nationalists and communists


local warlords

nationalists and communists


each other
Japan invades China

(1931) -
nationalists and communists

fight Japan

Civil war
resumes after WWII;
communists win
and establish the Peoples' Republic of China
to make it simple...
Meiji Restoration
(1868-1912) - era of major social, political, and economic change that was marked by rapid
modernization and Westernization
After WWI, Japan's rapid industrialization created some problems -
peasant and rural workers didn't share in the prosperity
strikes and labor problems
lack of natural resources in Japanese land
problems exporting goods to other nations
Growing Military Influence
throughout the 1920s,
conservative military leaders grew resentful of
the current Japanese government...
believed the western ideas and beliefs violated the traditional values of Japan
believed in a more
obedient, unified, familial nationalist vision of Japan
carried out a series of assassinations on government officials
after the stock market crash of 1929, Japanese military finally gained the upper hand in politics
Japanese Military Philosophy
Japanese soldiers promoted the
spirit of the soldier
over the lack of modern weapons
surrender, retreat and defense
were removed from military text books
Japanese "Economic" Expansion
Japan created the
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
in 1940
Southeast Asia was an area rich in rubber, oil, and other key resources
The GEACPS was supposed to be an economic alliance of nations in East Asia
their combined resources would allow Japan to be independent from Western economic control
Portrayed as economic, but most likely was a friendlier name for Japanese empire-building
Mohandas Gandhi
became famous for his practices of nonviolence and civil disobedience
known as "Mohatma" or "great soul"
urged Indians to reject Western civilization (use of force, love of money, prejudice)
Indian National Congress
Muslim League
– nationalist organizations that led India to independence
Keys to Indian Independence
India: Background to Discontent
Japanese Political Expansion
in the 1930s
Manchurian Incident (1931)
Japanese military invaded Manchuria (a region of NE China) for natural resources
Anti-Comintern Pact

formed the
Axis Powers with Germany and Italy (1936)
Battle of Nanking (1937)
Sino-Japanese War begins with Japanese invasion of Nanking
in 6 weeks, Japanese army killed at least 150,000 Chinese civilians and raped tens of thousands
Bombing of Pearl Harbor...Dec. 7, 1941
Full transcript