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Foundations of Reading and Writing
Transcript of Foundations of Reading and Writing
Brief History of Teaching Reading
Nonstage theory hold unskilled and skilled readers essentially use the same skills to figure out unknown words. Predictions depend on grammar/syntax and the semantics to decipher the message.
Stage theory holds that children go through three stages in acquiring literacy: Selective cue stage where a child may use the context of surrounding words and the illustrations to predict an unknown word. The second stage is the spelling-sound stage. The child will listen for unknown sounds and letters to determine what a new word may be. During the automatic stage, the final stage, the child has reached fluent or automatic level of reading.
The Grapho-Phonological System-Experimenting with how sounds correspond to letters
The Syntactic System- How grammar governs how a language is structured
The Semantic System-meaning-making vocabulary
The pragmatic System- Social and cultural function of language
By Amanda Stuart
Relationship among the psychological, sociological, and linguistic foundations of reading and writing processes
In the 1950s a strong skills-based movement gained momentum. The popular instructional method was look-say method. This was meaning based and required children to use the context alone to figure out words they didn't know. During the 60s whole language philosophy became the new movement. The 80s and 90s opened an a whole new argument for a more motivational and holistic approach. Ms. Adams was commissioned by the government to restudy "The Great Debate". Many educators viewed learning to read much like learning to talk, as a natural process. Due to the NICHD's research conducted on 10.000 children, it has been established that decoding, word recognition and comprehension strategies must be explicitly and systematically taught. The NRP reviewed over 100,000 students and established 5 skill areas as essential to early reading success: Phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary acquisition and comprehension. In 2001 NCLB contained Reading First which is summarized in the 2006 document.
As educators we must consider these connections:
Development of oral language fluency
Development of an awareness that writing is constructing meaning through thoughts and speech in written form
Development of a positive, confident and conscientious attitude toward writing and it's conventions
Development of an awareness and appreciation of self as writer
Development of awareness and appreciation of self as collaborator and evaluator in the writing process
Development of an interest in personal, meaningful writing and experimentation within a widening variety of formats
Importance of Phonemic Awareness
Educators must remember than direct phonics instruction, which is concerned with teaching letter sound relationships and patterns as they relate to learning how to figure out unfamiliar written words, provides a clear path to fluency. Phonics instruction provides careful attention to the sequencing of letters in words can also contribute to spelling ability. The proper use of phonic strategies is one of a number of ways a child may figure out words he does not immediately recognize (sight words). Phonics instruction as well as sight words are useful tools in learning to decode automatically.
Writing Reading Connection
Informational Text in the Classroom Literacy and Technology
Theories of reading acquisition
How do the major components of reading build upon each other
Instruction in the association of speech sounds with printed symbols. Phonics instruction provides a clear path to fluency.
The ability to hear, identify and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words. Phonemic awareness instruction concentrates on focusing a child's attention on the way sounds are sequenced in language in turn provides provides a pathway for phonics instruction and helps children associate letters with those sounds
Achieving speed and accuracy in recognizing words and comprehending text, and coordinating the two.
The knowledge and use of words. When a child has an acquired vocabulary they can read fluently because they are able to immediately recognize words and gain more meaning from the context.
The interpretation of print on a page into a meaningful message that is dependent upon the reader's decoding abilities, prior knowledge, cultural and social background and monitoring strategies.
The word wall should be refereed to several times as children read, write and listen
Children should be encouraged to use the word wall as a resource when they are trying to sound out a word
Easily confusable words (that, what, etc.) can be placed on different colors of paper
The word wall should be dynamic. New words should go up and old ones should come down on a regular basis
The wall used should be the wall the children can see most early when they write.
Word Walls Should Contain These Features
The phonetic stage is the third stage and is in many ways a refinement of the earlier prephonic stage. Certain vowels and letters may be omitted. However by this stage the child seems to have become aware of some of the basic spelling patterns and families in the English language through reading.
The prephonetic stage is when the child begins to understand the alphabetic principle or that letters have certain sounds that form words. In this stage one letter is used to symbolize a whole idea or concept.
The fourth stage is the transitional stage which occurs when the child can come close to the spelling of various English words. Vowels are correctly placed in each syllable and common English letter sequences begin to emerge correctly in the child's writing.
The initial stage of spelling development is called precommunicative stage. This stage occurs about the time the child learns the alphabet and makes the discovery that words are composed of letter. A child at this stage might compose a story that proceeds top to bottom or right to left.
Conventional Spelling Stage
At this stage children have mastered the basic principles of English orthography and most words are spelled correctly. At this stage a child can usually tell if the spelling of a word "looks right".
Some research has found that a child's vocabulary grows from about 3,000 words a year. Educators must provide multiple outlets for meaningful vocabulary opportunities. Children that read the most read the best and score the highest on formal and informal assessments because independent reading is one of the most critical factors in acquiring new meaningful vocabulary (10-15 minutes every evening). Read-alouds from quality narrative and expository material have shown to incidentally improve vocabulary as well as building on background knowledge prior to reading. Arm your students to become more independent word learner through the following: using the context, utilizing word structure, using the dictionary, figuring out unknown words and developing an appreciation for words.
Direct Instruction in Meaningful Vocabulary
How can I provide direct study in meaning vocabulary for different instructional situations?
Learning new words that represent new concepts (children com to grips with the new concept/word culture)
A "Word Map" would be useful in this regard and add an extra layer of clarification for second-language learners.
Clarifying and enriching the meaning of known words (children learn how shed differs from cabin). Semantic maps are important vehicles for helping children put together related information and developmental words for the same concept.
Learning new words for known concepts (children know what rain is, and now learn the word precipitation. Context-relationship procedure can be used to help children integrate the new word into their meaning vocabularies.
Moving words into children's speaking vocabularies (children know the meaning of selfish but have never used the word. Two activities that can foster the development of expanded speaking vocabularies are: Semantic gradient and camouflage.
Learning new meanings for known words (children know the word for change, but not to make change in math). Possible sentences is an activity that is ideal for informational text.
Writing goals to foster reading-writing connection for K-3rd are as follows: Development of oral language fluency for native English speakers as well as ELL; development of an awareness that writing is constructing meaning with thoughts and speech in written form, development of a positive; confident and conscientious attitude toward writing and it conventions; development of an awareness and appreciation of self as writer; development of awareness and appreciation of self as collaborator and evaluator in the writing process; development of an interest in personal, meaningful writing and experimentation within a widening variety of formats. The writing process could take several days or weeks. At the beginning children are urged to write about topics they know well, prewrite. Teachers can offer writing prompts. Drafting is when formal writing begins with an emphasis on expressing ideas. Next we want writers to seek a "peer editor" During revisions students make changes to their piece to meet the needs of their audience. Editing takes place when corrections are made. Lastly, students polish and prepare their pieces to read to others. Some writing structures may include story frames and literacy scaffolds. Journal writing provides an opportunity for personal expression as well as valuable writing practice. Some examples may include: Dialogue journals, reading response journals and learning logs.
Why do we teach informational text?
Most of reading and writing that children will be asked to do in thier later years in school and beyond will involve comprehending informational text
Informational reading and writing help children learn content
Informational reading and writing can be as, if not more, motivational to children than narrative formats
Exposure to informational reading and writing can help children think clearly and critically. Principles of using informational text:
Model and provide guided instruction in hypothesizing what the text will be about based upon the title and inventory paragraph
Show children how to use the heading and subheadings to create questions about the text
Explain how reading the summary and previewing the questions and other tools at the beginning and end of a chapter can tell them much about what will be important in the text.
Introduce an Expectation Grid or Webquest. The most expedient way to familiarize children with informational text is to use teacher think-alouds.
Guidelines to follow in order to be exemplary phonics instruction:
build on child's rich background about how print functions
build on a foundation of sound awareness
be integrated into a total reading program
focus on reading words rather than memorizing rules
include the study of beginning and ending sounds
develop word recognition strategies by focusing on the internal structure of the words
develop automatic word recognition skills quickly so that children can devote their attention to meaning and enjoyment.
Phonemic Awareness is the ability to hear, identify and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words. To put it into perspective this is the link between spoken and written language. Phonemic awareness is important in word awareness, the ability to rhyme, the ability to blend, segment into words & syllables, identify beginning sounds, segment words into phonemes, substitute & manipulate beginning phonemes and substitute middle and ending phonemes. 30 years of research indicates that phonemic awareness plays a large role in reading success. The most potent predictor of emergent literacy is phonemic awareness because in order for children to learn to read and write children must have an awareness of sounds.
Explain the task in which the teacher wants the children to be engaged through direct instruction, adequate modeling, and demonstrations
The teacher must analyze the task to be performed and initially, keep it as simple as possible
For teachers of ELLs, there are sounds regularly used in English that are not part of other languages.
Common sight words are known as high-frequency words. These words are words that readers immediately identify without decoding. See http://www.k12reader.com/fry-word-list-1000-high-frequency-words/
Remember to add 4/5 words to the "word wall" weekly.
Recount how these processes impact the design of reading/writing instruction
Scientifically based research suggest that if a child cannot understand word meaning the reading is neither active or purposeful. Educators must consider knowledge (schema), think time and praise (second language learners will encounter a silent period) when creating a classroom that is conducive to think and comprehend. Proficient readers make mental predictions based on what they already know, they think about what they already know, create pictures in their minds, personalize whatever they are reading, continually check for understanding as they read, remember important ideas and information they discover, form a personal opinion about the text they read and proficient readers construct text meanings by asking answering questions about what they read.
The act of reading is composed of two basic parts: the global reading process and the reading product. When defining the process it is a movement toward an end that is accomplished by going through the necessary steps to crack the code and construct meaning from what the author has said. Which in turn produces the product. Three basic skills a beginning reader must acquire to make maximum progress are:
Using letter sound relationships (phonics) cracking the code by associating and helping them to immediately apply this knowledge to meaningful text. Proficient spellers and fluent readers must master the helpful skills of sounding out words in context.
Acquiring a sight vocabulary of immediately recognized words happen with repletion, recognition of words then the word is automatically recognized. Always encourage tracking during reading.
Gaining meaning from context by finding the contextual clues that help the reader in determining the meaning of new words or difficult concepts.
The reading process consists of several fundamental characteristics:
Reading is a holistic process that involves various subskills, such as decoding, finding the main idea, and locating important detail in which all must be integrated to form a smooth, coherent whole.
Reading is a constructive process by which meaning is being constructed in the mind of the reader.
Reading is a strategic process where good readers use different strategies depending on their purpose for reading and then check to see that their purposes are being met. Think about your own thinking, metacognition, and model various strategies during read-alouds.
Cecil, Nancy Lee (2007). Striking a Balance, Best Practices for Early Literacy.