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Copy of Muscles

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by

Jennifer Hash

on 25 November 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Muscles

Muscles
Back Muscles
We can divide the back muscles into superficial and deep categories.
Forearm
Arm
Superficial
Trapezius
Latissimus dorsi
Rhomboid major
Rhomboid minor
Levator scapulae
Origin
: Occiput, ligamentum nuchae, C7-T12 spinous processes
Insertion
: Acromium process and spine of scapulae, clavicle
Action
: Extends head, elevates shoulders, adducts scapulae
Innervation
: CN XI & C3-C5
Trapezius
Origin:
T6-L5 spinous processes, Ribs 9-12, iliac crest
Insertion:
Intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Action:
Arm extension ("rowing"), adducts & medially rotates arm
Innervation:
Thoracodorsal nerve
Latissimus Dorsi
Rhomboid Major & Minor
Origin:
Transverse processes of C1-C4
Insertion:
Superior angle and medial border of scapulae
Action:
Elevates and adducts scapulae, lateral flexion of neck
Innervation:
Dorsal Scapular nerve
Levator Scapulae
Deep
Quadratus Lumborum
Erector Spinae:
Iliocostalis
Longissimus
Spinalis
Semispinalis


Origin:
Iliac crest and lumbar fascia
Insertion:
12th rib, transverse processes of L1-L5
Action:
Unilaterally, laterally flexes spine; Bilaterally extends vertebral column
Innervation:
Thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves
Quadratus Lumborum
O: Ribs 3-6; Transverse & Spinous processes of lumbar vertebrae & lumbosacral aponeurosis; medial & lateral sacral crests & iliac crest
I: Transverse processes C4-T12; Angle of ribs 4-12
A: Extends vertebral column; laterally flexes
N: Dorsal rami of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal nerves
Iliocostalis
O: Transverse processes of C4-T5; Transverse & spinous processes of lumbars, sacrum & ilium via lumbosacral aponeurosis
I: Mastoid process; Transverse processes C2-T12 & angles of ribs 4-12
A: Extends vertebral column; laterally flexes
N: Dorsal rami of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spinal nerves
Longissimus
Extends vertebral column; laterally flexes; rotate head
Dorsal rami of spinal nerves
Semispinalis
O: Spinous processes of C6-T1; Spinous processes of T11-L2
I: Spinous processes C2-C4 & T3-T8
A: Extends vertebral column; laterally flexes
N: Dorsal rami of cervical, throacic, and lumbar spinal nerves
Spinalis
Shoulder & Chest
Rotator Cuff
Teres Major
Deltoid
Pectoralis Major
Pectoralis Minor
Serratus Anterior

Leg
Glutes & Piriformis
Rotator Cuff
Supraspinatus
Infraspinatus
Teres Minor
Subscapularis
Shoulder
Rotator Cuff Muscles
S-I-T-S
Origin: Supraspinous fossa of scapula
Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
Action: Abduction of humerus; stabilizer
N: Suprascapular nerve
Supraspinatus
Origin: infraspinous fossa of scapula
Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
Action: Lateral rotation of humerus; stabilzer
Innervation: Suprascapular nerve
Infraspinatus
Origin: Lateral border of scapula
Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus
Action: Lateral rotation & extension of humerus; stabilizer of GH joint
Innervation: Axillary nerve
Teres Minor
Origin: Subscapular fossa
Insertion: Lesser Tubercle
Action: Medially rotates humerus
Innervation: Upper & lower subscapular nerves
Subscapularis
Origin: Clavicle, scapula (acromium & spine)
Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Action: Arm abduction; flexion, extension, rotation of humerus
Innervation: Axillary
Deltoid
Origin: Inferior angle of scapula and lateral border
Insertion: Intertubercular sulcus of humerus
Actions: Extends, medially rotates, & adducts humerus
Innervation: Lower subscapular nerve
Teres Major
Pectoralis Major & Minor
Origin: Ribs 1-9
Insertion: Vertebral & Anterior borders of scapula, Inferior angle
Action: Protracts scapula; aids in horizontal movements of the arm
Innervation: Long Thoracic nerve
Serratus Anterior
"The Boxer's Muscle"
Anterior compartment
Origin: Coracoid process of scapula
Action: Flexes and adducts the arm
Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve

Coracobrachialis
Origins: Coracoid process, Supraglenoid tubercle
Insertion: Radial tuberosity & Bicipital aponeurosis
Action: Forearm flexor, supination
Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve
Biceps Brachii
Origin: Diaphysis of humerus
Insertion: Coronoid process of ulna & Bicipital aponeurosis

Brachialis
Posterior Compartment
Origins: Infraglenoid tubercle, posterior humerus
Insertion: Olecranon process
Action: forearm extension
Innervation: Radial nerve
Triceps Brachii
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Olecranon process & proximal posterior ulna
Action: Abducts ulna during pronation; synergist for forearm extension
Innervation: Radial nerve
Anconeus
ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT
Superficial
Deep
Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus, Coronoid process of ulna
Insertion: Radius
Action: Pronation, weak flexion
Innervation: Median nerve
Pronator Teres
Origin: Medial epicondyle
Insertion: Metacarpals II and III
Action: Wrist flexion. hand abduction
Innervation: Median nerve

Flexor Carpi Radialis
Origin: Medial epicondyle and ulna
Insertion: Metacarpal V, pisiform, hamate
Action: Wrist flexion; hand adduction
Innervation: Ulnar nerve
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Origin: Medial epicondyle, coronoid process of ulna, radius
Insertion: Middle phalanx of digits 2-5
Action: Flexes wrist & fingers
Innervation: Median nerve
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
Origin: Medial epicondyle
Insertion: Palmar aponeurosis, skin, & fascia
Action: Tenses skin & fasia, weak wrist flexion
Innervation: Median nerve
Palmaris Longus
O: Ulna
I: Distal phalanx digits 2-5
A: Flex digits and wrist
N: Median and Ulnar N
Flexor Digitorum Profundus
Origin: Distal, anterior ulna
Insertion: Distal, anterior radius
Action: Pronate arm
Innervation: Median nerve (Anterior interosseus nerve)
Pronator Quadratus
Origin: Anterior radius, interosseous membrane
Insertion: Distal phalanx of thumb
Action: Flexes thumb
Innervation: Median nerve
Flexor Pollicis Longus & Brevis
Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus,
Insertion: Styloid process of radius
Action: Flexes forearm; weakly supinates
Innervation: Radial n.


Brachioradialis
(Lateral aspect of forearm)
Posterior Compartment
Posterior Compartment
Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
Insertion: Metacarpal II
Action: Extends and abducts the wrist
Innervation: Radial nerve
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Metacarpal III
Action: Extends & abducts wrist
Innervation: Radial nerve (Deep Branch)
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, ulna
Insertion: Metacarpal V
Action: Extends and adducts wrist
Innervation: Deep Radial nerve

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Gluteus Minimus
Origin: Ilium
Insertion: Greater trochanter of femur
Action: Abduction & medial rotation of thigh
Innervation: Superior gluteal nerve
Origin: Sacrum
Insertion: Greater trochanter
Action: Laterally rotates & abducts thigh
Innervation: Nerve to piriformis (S1 & S2)
Piriformis
Medial Compartment
Posterior Compartment
Muscles of the Thigh
Anterior Compartment
Quadriceps
Rectus Femoris
Vastus Medialis
Vastus Lateralis
Vastus Intermedius
Origin: Pubis
Insertion: Medial condyle of tibia
Action: Adducts thigh, medially rotates and flexes leg
Innervation: Obturator nerve
Gracilis
Posterior Thigh
Semimembranosus
ORigin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Medial tibal condyle, lateral femoral condyle
Action: Extend thigh, flex knee, medially rotate
Innervation: Tibial nerve
The Hamstrings
_____ the leg & ________ the thigh
Antagonistic to ________________.
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Origin: Iliac crest and ASIS
Insertion: IT band
Action: Flexes, abducts, medially rotates thigh; steadies trunk
Innervation: Superior gluteal nerve
Lateral Compartment
The Leg
Posterior Compartment
Anterior Compartment
Superficial and Deep
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Distal phalanges of digits 2-5
Innervation: Radial nerve (Posterior interosseous nerve)
Extensor Digitorum
Extensor Digiti Minimi
Origin: lateral epicondyle
Insertion: Tendon of Extensor digitorum on digit 5
Action: Extend proximal phalanx of digit 5
Innervation: Deep Radial n.
Origin: Lateral epicondyle; Supinator crest of ulna
Insertion: Lateral radioulnar joint
Action: Supinates (with biceps)
Innervation: Deep Radial nerve
Supinator
Origin: Ilium, sacrum, coccyx
Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity of femur & IT band
Action: Thigh extension; laterally rotates and abducts thigh
Innervation: Inferior Gluteal nerve
Gluteus Maximus
Origin: Ilium
Insertion: Greater trochanter of femur
Action: Abducts and medially rotates thigh
Innervation: Superior Gluteal nerve
Gluteus Medius
Combination of Psoas major (& minor if present!) and Iliacus
Innervation: Femoral nerve and lumbar plexus
Iliopsoas
Origin: Pectineal line and superior ramus of pubis
Insertion: Pectineal line of femur
Action: Adducts, flexes, and medially rotates thigh
Innervation: Femoral and Accessory Obturator nerves
Pectineus
Inserts via aponeurosis into proximal tibia
Innervation: Femoral nerve
Sartorius
Origin: AIIS, Acetabulum
Insertion: Tibial tuberosity
Action: Extends knee, flexes thigh
Innervation: Femoral nerve
Origin: Greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, linea aspera

Origin: Linea aspera and intertrochanteric line
Origin: Femur
Origin: Pubic crest & symphysis
Insertion: Linea aspera
Action: Adduct thigh; medially rotate and flex thigh
Innervation: Obturator nerve
Adductor Longus
Adductor Brevis
Origin: Pubis
Insertion: Linea aspera
Action: Adduction, flexion, & medial rotation of thigh
Innervation: Obturator neve
Adductor Magnus
Obturator and Tibial portion of the Sciatic nerve
Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Medial tibia
Action: Extend thigh, flex knee, medially rotate knee
Innervation: Tibial nerve
Semitendinosus
Origin: Ischial tuberosity and linea aspera
Insertion: Fibula and lateral condyle of tibia
Action: Extends thigh, flexes knee, laterally rotates leg
Innervation: Tibial nerve and Common fibular nerve
Biceps Femoris
Lateral Compartment
Origin: Lateral tibial condyle and interosseous membrane
Insertion: 1st cuneiform and metatarsal I
Action: Dorsiflexes & inverts foot
Innervation: Deep fibular nerve
Tibialis Anterior
Origin: Fibula and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Distal phalanx of digit 1
Action: Extends great toe & dorsiflexes foot
Innervation: Deep fibular nerve
Extensor Hallicus Longus & Brevis
Origin: Tibia, fibula, interosseous membrane
Insertion: Middle and distal phalanges of digits 2-5
Action: Extend toes & dorsiflex foot at ankle
Innervation: Deep fibular
Extensor Digitorum Longus & Brevis
Origins: Medial & lateral femoral condyles
Insertion: Calcaneus via Achilles tendon
Action: Plantarflexes foot
Innervation: Tibial nerve
Gastrocnemius
Origin: Proximal tibia, fibula, and interosseous membrane
Insertion: Calcaneus via Achilles tendon
Action: Plantarflexion
Innervation: Tibial nerve
Soleus
Part of the Triceps Surae

Origin: Lateral epicondyle of femur
Insertion: Calcaneus via Calcaneal "Achilles"
tendon
Action: Plantar flexes leg at ankle; flexes leg at knee
Innervation: Tibial n.

Plantaris
Origin: Lateral femoral condyle and lateral meniscus
Insertion: Proximal tibia
Action: Flexes & medially rotates leg to "unlock" extended knee
Innervation: Tibial nerve
Popliteus
Origin: Superior tibia and fibula and interosseous membrane
Insertion: The cuneiforms & metatarsals II-IV
Action: Inverts foot & plantarflexes
Innervation: Tibial nerve
Tibialis Posterior
Origin: Posterior tibia
Insertion: Distal phalanges of digits 2-5
Action: Flex toes; plantarflex and invert foot
Innervation: Tibial nerve
Flexor Digitorum Longus & Brevis
Origin: C7-T1 spinous processes;
T2-T5 spinous processes
Insertion: Medial border
Action: Retract (Adduct) & elevate scapula
Innervation: Dorsal scapular
Origin: Manubrium & Body of Sternum, Clavicle, Costal cartilage & ribs 1-6
Insertion: Intertubercular sulcus
Action: Arm flexion, adduction, and medial rotation
Innervation: Medial & Lateral pectoral nerves
Origin: Ribs (2)3-5
Insertion: Coracoid process
Action: Protracts scapula; can
assist in rib elevation
Innervation: Medial pectoral nerve
Origin: Head & body of fibula
Insertion: 1st Cuneiform, 1st metarsal
Action: Eversion of foot, weak plantarflexion
Innervation: Superficial fibular n.
Orbicularis Oculi & Orbicularis Oris
Origin: Muscle fibers from mandible & maxillae
Insertion: Skin at angles of mouth
Action: Closes & protrudes the lips
Levator labii superioris & Depressor labii inferioris
Origin: Zygomatic & maxillary bones
Insertion: Skin of upper lip; blends with orbicularis oris
Action: Raises upper lip
Levator anguli oris & Depressor anguli oris
Origin: Maxillae
Insertion: Skin of lips & orbicularis oris
Action: Draws corners of mouth laterally & superiorly
Zygomaticus major & minor
Origin: Zygomatic
Insertion: Skin of upper lip & orbicularis oris
Action: Raises corners of mouth superiorly
Risorius & Buccinator
Origin: Fasica over parotid gland & fibers of masseter
Insertion: Skin at angle of mouth
Action: Draws corners of lips laterally
Platysma & Mentalis
Origin: Fascia of deltoid & pectoralis major
Insertion: Mandible, muscles around the mouth, skin of lower face
Action: Tenses skin of neck; depresses mandible; pull lower lip inferiorly & laterally
Muscles of Facial Expression
CN VII
Muscles of
Mastication
CN V
Temporalis
Origin: Temporal fossa
Insertion: Coronoid process
Action: Elevates mandible (closes jaw); retracts mandible
Masseter
Medial (Internal) Pterygoid
Origin: Sphenoid, palatine, &
maxillae
Insertion: Angle & ramus of
mandible
Action: Grinding movements
of teeth; elevates mandible;
lateral excursion of mandible
Lateral (External) Pterygoid
Origin: Greater wing &
pterygoid process of sphenoid
Insertion: Mandibular condyle
Action: Grinding movements
of teeth; protracts mandible;
lateral excursion of mandible
Head
The
Suprahyoids
Geniohyoid
Origin: Mandible
Insertion: Hyoid
Action: Elevates hyoid;
depresses mandible; draws tongue
anteriorly
Innervation: C1
Mylohyoid
Origin: Mandible
Insertion: Hyoid
Action: Elevates hyoid; depresses mandible
Innervation: CN V3 (Mandibular nerve)
Diagastric
Origin: Anterior belly-mandible; Posterior belly-temporal
Insertion: Hyoid via a tendinous attachment
Action: Elevate hyoid; depress mandible
Innervation: Anterior belly-CN V3; Posterior belly-CN VII
Stylohyoid
The
Infrahyoids
Omohyoid
Origin: Superior border of scapula
Insertion: Hyoid
Action: Depress hyoid
Innervation: C1-C3 (Ansa cervicalis)
Sternohyoid
Origin: Clavicle & manubrium
Insertion: Hyoid
Action: Depresses hyoid
Innervation: C1-C3 (Ansa cervicalis)
Sternothyroid
Origin: Manubrium
Insertion: Thyroid cartilage of larynx
Action: Depresses thyroid cartilage
Innervation: C1-C3 (Ansa Cervicalis)
Thyrohyoid
Origin: Thyroid cartilage of larynx
Insertion: Greater horns & body of hyoid
Action: Depresses hyoid
Innervation: C1 & C2 (Ansa Cervicalis); CN XII
Fibularis brevis
Fibularis tertius
Corrugator supercilii
Flexors of the Neck
(Anterior compartment)
Sternocleidomastoid
Origin: Manubrium of sternum & clavicle
Insertion: Mastoid process & superior nuchal line of occipital bone
Action: Bilaterally-flexes neck; unilaterally-rotates to opposite side
Innervation: CN XI; C1 & C2
Scalenes
Origin: Transverse processes
of C2-C7
Insertion: Ribs 1 & 2
Action: Bilaterally-flexion of
neck; Unilaterally-lateral flexion & slight rotation of neck; elevation of ribs during
deep inhalation
Innervation: Cervical spinal
nerves
Origin: Portions of frontal & maxillary bones (medial orbit)
Insertion: Tissues of the eyelid (orbital path)
Action: Closes/squints eyes; draws eyebrows inferiorly
Origin: Mandible
Insertion: Skin of lower lip
Action: Draws lip inferiorly
Origin: Mandible
Insertion: Skin of lips & orbicularis oris
Action: Draws corners of mouth laterally & inferiorly
Origin: Alveolar processes of mandible and maxillae
Insertion: Orbicularis oris
Action: Compresses cheeks; holds food while chewing; draws corners of mouth laterally
Origin: Mandible
Insertion: Skin of chin
Action: Wrinkles chin & protrudes lower lip
Origin: Frontal bone
Insertion: Skin of eyebrow
Action: Draws eyebrows medially & inferiorly; wrinkles skin of forehead vertically
Origin: Zygomatic bone & zygomatic arch; maxillae
Insertion: Ramus & angle of mandible
Action: Prime mover of jaw closure
Anterior Neck
Origin: Styloid process
Insertion: Hyoid
Action: Elevates hyoid & draws it posteriorly
Innervation: CN VII
Origin: Flexor retinaculum, trapezium, & capitate
Insertion: Proximal phalanx of digit 1
Action: Flexes thumb
Innervation: Median nerve & Ulnar Nerves
Origin: Shaft of fibula
Insertion: 5th metatarsal
Action: Everts & plantar-
flexes foot
Innervation: Superficial
fibular nerve
Origin: Calcaneus
Insertion: Proximal phalanx of digit 1
Action: Extends great toe
Innervation: Deep fibular nerve
Origin: Calcaneus
Insertion: Middle phalanges of digits (1)2-4
Action: Extends digits (1)-4
Innervation: Deep fibular
Origin: Calcaneus
Insertion: Tendon of flexor digitorum longus
Action: Flex digits 2-5
Innervation: Lateral plantar nerve
Flexor Hallicus Longus & Brevis
Origin: Posterior fibula
Insertion: Distal phalanx of digit 1
Action: Flexes digit 1; plantarflexs foot
Innervation: Tibial nerve
Origin: Cuboid & lateral cuneiform
Insertion: Proximal phalanx of digit 1
Action: Flex great toes
Innervation: Medial plantar nerve
Muscles of Respiration
Intercostals
External Intercostals
Origin: Inferior border of superior rib
Insertion: Superior border of inferior rib
Action: Draws ribs superiorly to elevate the rib cage during inhalation
Innervation: T2-T12 spinal nerves
Internal Intercostals
Origin: Superior border of inferior rib
Insertion: Inferior border of superior rib
Action: Draws ribs together during forced exhalation
Innervation: T2-T12 spinal nerves
Diaphragm
Origin: Xiphoid process, lower 6 ribs, lumbar vertebrae, & intervertebral discs
Insertion: Central tendon
Action: Contraction-inhalation; Relaxation-expiration
Innervation: Phrenic nerve (C3, C4, C5)
Abdominals
External Oblique
Origin: Ribs 5-12
Insertion: Iliac crest, abdominal
aponeurosis, & linea alba
Action: Bilaterally-compress abdominal contents, flex vertebral column; Unilaterally-trunk rotation
& lateral flexion
Innervation: T7-T12 & Iliohypogastic nerve
Internal Oblique
Origin: Iliac crest, inguinal ligament, thoracolumbar fascia
Insertion: Cartilage of ribs 7-10 & linea alba
Action: Action: Bilaterally-compress abdominal contents, flex vertebral column; Unilaterally-trunk rotation
& lateral flexion
Innervation: T8-T12, Iliohypogastic nerve, ilioinguinal nerve
Rectus Abdominis
Origin: Pubic crest & pubic symphysis
Insertion: Xiphoid process & costal cartilage of ribs 5-7
Action: Flexes & rotates vertebral column; weak abdominal compression
& lateral flexion
Innervation: T7-T12
Transversus Abdominis
Origin: Iliac crest, inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia, costal cartilages of ribs 5-10
Insertion: Xiphoid process, linea alba, & pubis
Action: Compresses abdominal contents
Innervation: T8-T12 spinal nerves, Iliohypogastic, & ilioinguinal nerves
Full transcript