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Urban Geography

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Chris Kapuscik

on 17 April 2018

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Transcript of Urban Geography

Before urbanization, people often clustered in agricultural villages

a relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. About 10,000 years ago, people began living in agricultural villages

Agricultural Villages
Two components enable the formation of cities:
1) an agricultural surplus
2) social stratification (a leadership class)

The First Urban Revolution
in a model urban hierarchy, the population of the city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
For example:
largest city = 12 million
2nd largest = 6 million (1/2)
3rd largest = 4 million (1/3)
4th largest = 3 million (1/4)

* This rule does not work when you consider all the other cities in any given country in today’s world.

Rank-Size Rule:
The Greek Cities
by 500 BCE, Greeks were highly urbanized.
Network of more than 500 cities and towns
On the mainland and on islands
Each city had an acropolis and an agora

Diffusion of Urbanization
Urban Geography
Cities and Urban Land Use
The Roman Cities
a system of cities and small towns, linked together with hundreds of miles of roads and sea routes.
Sites of Roman cities were typically for trade
A Roman city’s combined the acropolis and agora into one space.
Roman cities had extreme wealth and extreme poverty (between 1/3 and 2/3s of empire’s population was enslaved)

Diffusion of Urbanization 2
The Second Urban Revolution/Today's US Rust Belt
A large scale movement of people to cities to work in manufacturing due to the Industrial Revolution (1750-1900)

The leading city of a country. The city is disproportionately larger than the rest of the cities in the country. Serves as the focus of a country and its culture.
For example:
London, UK
9,750,500; Birmingham (2.5 million)
Mexico City, Mexico

Paris, France
- 2.25 Million; Marseille (850,000)
Copenhagen, Denmark
- 1.18 million; Aarhus (242,000)

- the rank-size rule does not work for a country with a primate city

Primate City
Why did people start living in cities?

What problems are associated with cities?

The buildup of the central city and the suburban realm – the city and the surrounding environments connected to the city.

Five Hearths of Urbanization:

1) Mesopotamia, 3500 BCE

2) Nile River Valley, 3200 BCE

3) Indus River Valley, 2200 BCE

4) Huang He and Wei River Valleys, 1500 BCE

5)Mesoamerica, 200 BCE

In the USA, During the second half of the 20th century…
manufacturing changed and locations changed (went outside of country)
Many factories have been abandoned, creating “rust belts”
Urbanization in Developing countries

Central Place Theory (Christaller)
Walter Christaller developed a model to predict how and where central places in the urban hierarchy would be functionally and spatially distributed.

main purpose of a settlement or market town is to furnish goods and services to the surrounding markets

surface is flat with no physical barriers
soil fertility is the same everywhere
population and purchasing power are evenly distributed
region has uniform transportation network
from any given place, a good or service could be sold in all directions out to a certain distance

* Large cities are economic hubs with radiating connectors for commerce

* According to Christaller, the range or maximum distance a consumer will travel to buy a good is proportional to the cost of obtaining the good
How are Cities Organized, and How do they Function?
Urban Morphology:

The layout of a city, its physical form and structure.

Modeling the North American City (Models)
Concentric zone model (Ernest Burgess)

Sector model (Homer Hoyt)

Multiple Nuclei Model (Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman)

Three Classical Models of Urban Structure
Concentric Zone Model- Burgess
Series of rings based on 1923 Chicago
CBD is center and oldest part and as city expands, more rings added
Outermost ring is the commuter zone ($$$$)
Zone of transition (Houses deteriorating and immigrants live here)
Provided a way for urban residents to gradually move up economically and socially by allowing them to migrate progressively away from the CBD.

Sector Model- Hoyt
Lower income neighborhoods are usually located adjacent to the industrial and transportation corridor (Railroads)
High-class residential areas don’t change much over time
Transportation determines the sector (Railroads = Industry; Low class next to railroads; High Class = Major Highways to suburbs)

Multiple Nuclei Model- Harris and Ullman
They developed their model during a time when many people began using cars to navigate cities more easily.

Multiple points of nuclei for support (business district supports the suburb)

Broken up by the different nodes of activities
Examples: Universities, Hospitals, Airport, Factories, Suburbs, and the CBD

Urban Realms Model
Each realm is a separate economic, social, and political entity that is linked together to form a larger metro framework.

Most American cities are similar to this model

Edge City
- A relatively large urban area located on the outskirts of the large city

Gravity Model
Used to calculate the bonds between different urban centers.

It assumes that two cities located close together would attract more people that two cities located far apart.

Modeling the Cities of the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery
Latin American City (Griffin-Ford model)

African City (de Blij model)

Southeast Asian City (McGee model)

Latin American City (Griffin-Ford model)
The elite residential section is located on either side of the main blvd that leads to the CBD

Squatter settlements dominate on the periphery

Contains a distinct residential spine proceeding outward from the center city along the main blvd

Disamenity sector – very poorest parts of the city eg. the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
The Sub Saharan African City Model
Most African cities have three separate business districts due to colonialism.

Traditional ethnic market, colonial market, modern developing CBD

Mining and Industry outside the city

Lack of middle class or wealthy areas
Edge Cities
Edge Cities- A large node of office and commercial land use outside the central city with more jobs than residents
Since the 1980s, there has been a trend to build suburbs and edge cities within the US that are farther and farther away from the Central City.
Residents depend on cars and public transportation to access jobs in large cities.

How do People Make Cities?
Urban Sprawl
Unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments, and roads over large expanses of land, often with little concern for urban planning.

Henderson, Nevada

Project Assignment (Finish the unit by Friday)

You will create either a power point/prezi slide show of your topic.
Include pictures and short video segments (not necessary)
Keep everything in Bullet point format and not long explanations.
Avoid unecessary text inclusions
Stick to what is important.
But Use images!!!

Presentations are on Thursday and Friday and is necessary for us to complete the unit in a fair amount of time.
Houston 2,195,914
San Antonio 1,409,019
Dallas 1,257,676
Austin 885,400
El Paso 674,433
Mexico City 8,851,080
Ecatepec 1,655,015
Guadalajara 1,495,182
Corona NM
Alamogordo NM
Range - The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.

Threshold - The minimum number of people required to justify a certain good/service

Negatives include increased car dependency, loss of agricultural capacity, and increased traffic

Positives include local economic growth, affordability, and low density pollution
CBD (Central Business District)
CBD is the focal point of a city, and serves as its commercial center, transportation hub, and often referred to as the downtown.
More Realistic!
Poor lives on the outskirts and the wealthy near the CBD
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