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Input Devices Output Devices and Processors

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Anusha Patel

on 20 September 2013

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Transcript of Input Devices Output Devices and Processors

Input Devices
An Input Device is a device that can be used to insert data into a computer or other computational device.
To translate a person's keystrokes into a signal a computer can understand, they use switches and circuits. This is a keyboards primary function. - To act as an input device. Keyboards can let a person do many things such as typing a document, playing games etc.

The processor in the keyboard determines what characters to send to the computer by analyzing the key matrix . It holds these characters in its memory buffer and then sends the data.
A hand-operated electronic device that controls the coordinates of a cursor on your computer screen as you move it around on a pad; on the bottom of the device is a ball that rolls on the surface of the pad.
There are special keys forming special commands.
The arrow key situated on the bottom of the keyboard moves the cursor instead of having to move the mouse.
Keyboards are less expensive because they come with every computer.

Keyboards also have some disadvantages such as, the person using the keyboard has to learn how to type and also the frequent movement from keyboard to move and back could cause carpal tunnel syndrome (A feeling of numbness, tingling, burning, or aching pain in the fingers when the nerves are compressed or damaged), or very similar, Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI).

A mouse works very well for navigating a graphical user interface, such as Windows or Mac. With additional buttons and a scroll wheel, increasingly complex functions can be done from a mouse. These include opening, closing and minimizing software; grouping, moving and deleting files; and even image editing with software like Photoshop. In my experience, a mouse is better for fine movements and adjustments than most of the alternatives.
An external mouse requires space, making it nearly impossible to use on an airplane. A mechanical mouse needs to be cleaned regularly or it will get clogged with lint and dust. The cord on most mice can get hung up and drag, making the mouse difficult to use.
Different types of Mouses

Mechanical mouse: Houses a hard rubber ball that rolls as the mouse is moved. Sensors inside the mouse body detect the movement and translate it into information that the computer interprets.

Optical mouse: Uses an LED sensor to detect tabletop movement and then sends off that information to the computer for merry munching.

Infrared (IR) or radio frequency cordless mouse: With both these types, the mouse relays a signal to a base station wired to the computer's mouse port. The cordless mouse requires power, which comes in the form of batteries.

A mouse with many buttons: The extra buttons can be programmed to do specific things, such as navigate the Web or turn pages when you’re reading a document. The typical button-ified mouse has about five buttons.

Trackball mouse: Like an upside-down mouse. Rather than roll the mouse around, you use your thumb or index finger to roll a ball on top of the mouse. The whole contraption stays stationary, so it doesn’t need a lot of room, and its cord never gets tangled.

Stylus mouse: Another mouse mutation enjoyed by the artistic type is the stylus mouse, which looks like a pen and draws on a special pad.

Cordless 3-D mouse: This kind of mouse can be pointed at the computer screen like a TV remote.

Remote Controls
A remote control is a component of an electronics device, most commonly a television set, DVD player and home theater systems originally used for operating the device wirelessly from a short line-of-sight distance. Remote control has continually evolved and advanced over recent years to include Bluetooth connectivity, motion sensor-enabled capabilities and voice control.[1][2]

Commonly, remote controls are Consumer IR devices used to issue commands from a distance to televisions or other consumer electronics such as stereo systems, DVD players and dimmers. Remote controls for these devices are usually small wireless handheld objects with an array of buttons for adjusting various settings such as television channel, track number, and volume. In fact, for the majority of modern devices with this kind of control, the remote control contains all the function controls while the controlled device itself has only a handful of essential primary controls. Most of these remote controls communicate to their respective devices via infrared signals and a few via radio signals. Earlier remote controls in the 1970s used ultrasonic tones. The remote control code, and thus the required remote control device, is usually specific to a product line, but there are universal remotes, which emulate the remote control made for most major brand devices.

The main technology used in home remote controls is infrared (IR) light. The signal between a remote control handset and the device it controls consists of pulses of infrared light, which is invisible to the human eye.

Can control devices more comfortably
Infrared remotes only work by line-of-sight, so you have to be in a position where there is nothing blocking the remote or the sensor. Also, many television remotes have poor ergonomic design: the center of gravity is near the bottom of the device, but the most-frequently used buttons are near the top, so it's not unusual to have to use two hands, or hold the remote from the front and operate it awkwardly with the index finger, rather than holding it in the palm of the hand and pressing buttons with the thumb. Also it is worked using batteries which have to be

Output devices
Common output formats are printed paper, sound, video and on-screen documents. They let the computer communicate with the user.
The most common output device is the monitor or VDU.

Modern monitors, where the case isn’t more than a few centimetres deep, are usually Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) or Thin Film Transistors (TFT) monitors.

Older monitors, where the case is likely to be around 30 cm deep, are Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors.

Advantage - Energy Consumption
LCD monitors with Energy Star ratings use little electricity in comparison to CRT machines as LCDs consume 25 watts to 50 watts, while CRT monitors consume 60 watts to 80 watts. You can determine the exact amount of power a monitor consumes using online power consumption calculators. This makes it possible for individuals or businesses to keep track of overhead costs such as electricity bills and come up with beneficial energy-saving measures.

Advantage -- Multiple Screens
According to a research by Jon Peddie, the founder of Jon Peddie Research and a graphics industry pioneer, using two monitors at the same time increases productivity by 20 percent to 30 percent. Multiple monitors make it possible for professionals such as fashion and graphic designers to compare their current designs with other designers' or their own previous works. Modern Macs and Windows computers allow you to plug in two monitors.
Disadvantage -- Radiation
Monitors emit extremely low frequency (EFL) radiation and microwave radiation, which are harmful to human health. These types of radiation have electromagnetic properties that penetrate solids, including the human body. People who stay in front of monitors for long can develop heart diseases and cancer as results of EFL and microwaves radiation. Sit two feet (about 60 cm) away from the computer to minimize the radiation effects and this might be difficult for people with poor eyesight.

Disadvantage -- Expensive and Fragile
LCD monitors are costly to buy and maintain and limits an individual or a company's ability to acquire them. LCD monitors require frequent monitoring to ensure that the drivers are computer virus free and are working properly. Malfunctioning monitor drivers can hinder efficient performance of certain software applications and this can lower the quality of work done using the monitor.

Disadvantage -- Screen Flicker
CRT monitors have low refreshing ability known as the flickering effect. This lowers productivity because the user has to wait for some time for the monitor to respond to a command. The flicker effect can also make you lose interest when performing computing tasks that require heavy software applications such as video game programming or web design.
Useful Websites




A computer printer is a computer peripheral device that produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics, usually on paper) from data stored in a computer connected to it. A printer is used to print anything that you want, like pictures or documents or data. They plug in where there is a USB slot, from there you can click print and the document is sent to the port where your document is printed.

Features -
Besides printing documents and photos, some printers can also scan, fax and make photocopies. This means that a computer printer may actually replace several different machines, reducing clutter and streamlining a home office.
Convenience -
Printing documents at home can save time and money compared to visiting a commercial printer or office supply store. It is also a good way to manage documents and paperwork by producing hard copies to use as backups or by printing documents or letters that need to be mailed.
The first disadvantage of printers comes from the initial cost. For users who only print documents occasionally, establishing a good relationship with a local print a few hundred pounds in a home printer. While some basic models are very affordable, the sky is the limit with colour laser printers and high-quality photo printers, representing a substantial investment.

Printers continue to cost money after they are purchased. Users will need to provide a constant supply of paper, which can be especially expensive for photo printers that produce images on high-quality, glossy photo paper. Ink and toner, for inkjet and laser printers, respectively, are also expensive and need to be replaced with use. Finally, any printer may require occasional maintenance or repairs, leading to even greater cost.

Having a printer connected to a computer is a way of encouraging waste. Users may be more likely to print hard copies of documents that they could easily read online or off of the computer's monitor. Excess printing wastes electricity, ink and paper, and can add up to a substantial cost over time. When only essential documents get sent out for printing, and only after extensive proofreading, there is much less waste.

Laser printers are quite expensive to buy and run but produce a high quality output and are quiet and fast.

Ink-jet printers offer black and white or colour printing with reduced levels of quality and speed. Colour ink jet printers are cheaper to buy than colour laser printers.

Dot matrix printers are not so common today. They are comparatively noisy and low quality but are cheap to run and are used when carbon copies or duplicates need to be made, such as for wage slips. Also, they are useful in dirty environments such as a garage because they are much sturdier than the other two types of printer.
A pair of earphones typically joined by a band placed over the head, for listening to audio signals such as music or speech

Hands are free
Can use your hands to write or drive
Does not affect other people (the music)

You can only hear music and so have to watch your surroundings in the city because you can't hear things quieter than trucks or sirens.

Your ears could start hurting after a while with either
headphones or earphones.

These earphones are often the ones people see DJs wearing simply because of the way they treat the sound coming out of the phones and into the user's ears. They work almost like a sound proof room: the ear pads that fit around the outside of the ears in a circular design keep all the sounds within the space between the ear pad and ear. They are very effective for filtering out ambient sound, and for this reason are very popular with sound engineers and DJs.

This type have ear pads that "sit" on the ears rather than around them. They are connected by an adjustable band that stretches over the top of the head, and the pad between the speaker and the ears usually will consist of some sort of a foam. Many people find them reminiscent of the 1980s Walkman era, but they are still in common use around the world.

Ear Buds
One of the most convenient and inexpensive earphones available, the ear buds are placed directly outside the ear canal without actually enveloping it. For the most part, they do not have the same crisp sound of a circumaural headphone, but they can be used quite well when relying on volume to block out any surrounding noise.

The name for these particular earphones is pretty self explanatory. They are similar to ear buds, except that they go directly into the ear canal. Not only do canalphones provide great sound but great portability as well, since the ear pads are usually made of silicone rubber or elastomer. A lot of people think that these textiles are used simply for the noise isolation, but the rubber and elastomer are also used to keep them in the ear. This is one of the most commonly used varieties for people who are into athletics or may do a lot of walking around. Not only are they typically quite comfortable, but they stay in the ear, which is important when doing something like running or exercising.

Storage Devices
Storage devices can be internal and external. Internal storage includes the RAM, ROM and Hard Drive.

Eternal storage includes memory sticks, CDs, DVDs (to back up internal storage)

Main store (or computer memory) is divided into Read Only Memory (ROM) and Random Access Memory (RAM).

ROM is memory that cannot be changed by a program or user. ROM retains its memory even after the computer is turned off. For example, ROM stores the instructions for the computer to start up when it is turned on again.

RAM is a fast temporary type of memory in which programs, applications and data are stored. Here are some examples of what's stored in RAM:
the operating system
the graphical user interface (GUI)

If a computer loses power, all data stored in its RAM is lost.

Advantages (generally) once it is "written" to, it will be there forever. ROMs are often used in fixed situations like the chip that runs a dishwasher, an inexpensive wristwatch, etc. Also, it does not require constant source of electricity.

ROM or "read-only memory" cannot be altered. Once a ROM chip or other ROM media is created, it cannot be changed by user-accessable means and is therefore inflexible.

RAM advantages: you can "write" to ram at any time, and the erase the ram at any time an "rewrite" over it.

It has a disadvantage in that you need to constantly supply it with power or it will lose its information.
ROM or "read-only memory" cannot be altered. Once a ROM chip or other ROM media is created, it cannot be changed by user-accessable means and is therefore inflexible.

It has a disadvantage in that you need to constantly supply it with power or it will lose its information.
Hard Drive
hard disk drive (HDD) is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material. An HDD retains its data even when powered off.

You can get internal and external hard drives. You can back up your internal hard drive with your external hard drive.
Large storage capacity
Stores and retrieves data much faster than a floppy disk or CD-ROM
Data is not lost when you switch off the computer
Usually fixed inside the computer so cannot get mislaid.
Cheap on a cost per megabyte compared to other storage media.
Hard disks can be replaced and upgraded as necessary
Can have two hard disks in a machine, one can act as a mirror of the other and create a back up copy.

Hard disks eventually fail which stops the computer from working.
Regular 'head' crashes can damage the surface of the disk, leading to loss of data in that sector.
The disk is fixed inside the computer and cannot easily be transferred to another computer.
External Devices
USB flash drives are compact file storage devices to save your information externally. Flash drives are about the size of a disposable lighter and can be conveniently worn around your neck or attached to your keychain.
The end of the flash drive is inserted into the USB port on the computer. Once attached to the computer, they operate in much the same way as floppy drives, but have capacities currently in the range of up to 2 gigabytes.

USB flash drives
USB Flash drives are readily affordable and cost less per megabyte than the previously ubiquitous floppy disk. They are also more reliable that floppy disks, and can be easily carried in a pocket or around one's neck. They offer a large storage capacity without the inconvenience of transporting an external hard drive. All modern operating systems (Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7, Linux 2.4+, and Mac OS X) support USB Flash drives, and virtually all modern computers are equipped with a USB port.
Due to their small size, they can easily be misplaced or lost. Without the aid of additional software, data on the drive can be easily read by anyone who finds it. While much longer lasting than floppy disks, they are vulnerable to wearing out from the process of writing / erasure of the disk. Occasionally the file system can become corrupted in such a way that it becomes difficult or impossible to reformat the drive.
The processor, or central processing unit (CPU), is the brain of the computer. The more powerful the processor is, the faster your PC will run. The speed of a processor – that is the number of instructions per second that it can carry out - is measured in gigahertz (GHz).
Also consider the number of cores. A multi-core processor effectively has more than one CPU on a single silicon chip, so it’s better able to handle multiple tasks at once. Most modern desktops have multi-core processors.
When buying a new PC, for a basic machine you’ll need a dual-core processor that runs at about 2.5GHz - this will handle everyday basic computing tasks.

A home user after a mid-range PC might consider something like an i5 quadcore processor. This is the name of a range of processors from chip-maker Intel – the more expensive processors will give better performance.
Keen gamers who want all the power they can get may be tempted by the latest high-power CPUs such as the i7, Intel’s top-of-the-range processor. However, the fastest processors don’t come cheap and will push up the total cost of a PC considerably.
Most modern desktop processors will be 64-bit – this means that they can work with chunks of data made up of 64 binary digits. Older processors were 32-bit.

A multi-core processor is a single computing component with two or more independent actual central processing units (called "cores"), which are the units that read and execute program instructions.[1] The instructions are ordinary CPU instructions such as add, move data, and branch, but the multiple cores can run multiple instructions at the same time, increasing overall speed for programs amenable to parallel computing.[2] Manufacturers typically integrate the cores onto a single integrated circuit die (known as a chip multiprocessor or CMP), or onto multiple dies in a single chip package.
Multi-core Processor
The proximity of multiple CPU cores on the same die allows the cache coherency circuitry to operate at a much higher clock-rate than is possible if the signals have to travel off-chip. Combining equivalent CPUs on a single die significantly improves the performance of cache snoop (alternative: Bus snooping) operations. Put simply, this means that signals between different CPUs travel shorter distances, and therefore those signals degrade less. These higher-quality signals allow more data to be sent in a given time period, since individual signals can be shorter and do not need to be repeated as often.

Assuming that the die can fit into the package, physically, the multi-core CPU designs require much less printed circuit board (PCB) space than do multi-chip SMP designs. Also, a dual-core processor uses slightly less power than two coupled single-core processors, principally because of the decreased power required to drive signals external to the chip. Furthermore, the cores share some circuitry, like the L2 cache and the interface to the front side bus (FSB). In terms of competing technologies for the available silicon die area, multi-core design can make use of proven CPU core library designs and produce a product with lower risk of design error than devising a new wider core-design. Also, adding more cache suffers from diminishing returns.

Maximizing the utilization of the computing resources provided by multi-core processors requires adjustments both to the operating system (OS) support and to existing application software. Also, the ability of multi-core processors to increase application performance depends on the use of multiple threads within applications. The situation is improving: for example the Valve Corporation's Source engine offers multi-core support, and Crytek has developed similar technologies for CryEngine 2, which powers their game, Crysis. Emergent Game Technologies' Gamebryo engine includes their Floodgate technology, which simplifies multi-core development across game platforms. In addition, Apple Inc.'s OS X, starting with Mac OS X Snow Leopard, and iOS starting with iOS 4, have a built-in multi-core facility called Grand Central Dispatch.
Computer Processors (CPUs) Dual, Triple and Quad Core take over single CPUs
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