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Quantum Levitation

School Project

Philip McCleer

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of Quantum Levitation

Quantum Levitation and Superconductors Work Cited http://www.realscience.us/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/QuantumLevitation.jpg
http://superconductors.org/history.htm This is a Superconductor It allows zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields when it is cooled down below a certain temperature Electrical resistance is when electrons hit atoms and give off energy usually as heat This is a magnetic track Meissner effect This is why super conductors expel the magnetic field because of it the magnetic field bends around it Quantum Locking Flux tubes or "vortex" can penetrate a super thin superconductor, because it costs the superconductor less energy to allow some of it to pass through. They form where the magnetic field can pass through it.

The area around where the flux tubes penetrate loose it's superconductor qualities. When the superconductor moves the flux tubes move with it. This is because of two reasons. 1. flux tubes are magnetic fields
2. superconductor repels the magnetic fields HTS LTS HTS(High temperature superconductor) They are cheaper to use then LTS.
They are more reliable that LTS.
And the technology behind it is simpler. LTS(Low temperature superconductor) They are more expensive.
They have high thermal stability.
The technology is more difficult. This cable has ZERO electrical resistance Much better conductivity carries much more current in small sizes No power dissipation Better reliability Cheaper in long run Higher Cost As you add current, cable get bigger Heat is produced HTS Cabling Normal Cabling Superconductor This is made of a sapphire wafer coated in yttrium barium copper oxide(YBa2Cu3O7-x ). The temperate that this ceramic layer gains it's superconductor abilities is around -185ºC (-301ºF). Casimir effect This is another way quantum levitation could be achieved. Normally when two objects are separated by a small gap of empty space there is a attraction of them two together. A new material called a topological insulator, a new state of matter confirmed by crystals, does not conduct electricity through it, but inside on it. We can then take a normally attractive force(casimir effect) and then reverse it by simply changing the magnetization of a thin layer on top. Possibilities Magnetic Levitation vs Quantum Levitation Based on the magnetic repulsive nature Electromagnetic magnets are used They left low loads Electromagnets are required on train and track Based on quantum locking principle Diamagnetic properties are used Can lift high load Electromagnets only on track Many trains on a track is possible They can be used for many uses such as Trains
Power loss less machines
History Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes He cooled mercury down to the temperature of liquid helium (about 4 K). The mercury lost all signs of resistance In 1911 In 1933 German researchers Walther Meissner and Robert Ochsenfeld They discovered that superconductors repel magnetic fields In 1941 niobium-nitride at 16 K In 1953 vanadium-silicon at 17.5 K In 1962 Brian D. Josephso He predicted electrical current would flow between two superconductors even when seperated by a insulator He was later confirmed Bill Little suggested organic superconductors could exist in 1964 Danish researcher Klaus Bechgaard and 3 french team members in 1980 cooled (TMTSF)2PF6 down to 1.2 K and put very high pressure on it before it became a superconductor (it proved the other guy right) In 1986 Alex Müller and Georg Bednorz They created a superconductor at 30 K. It was a ceramic, in other words a isolator. It was a Lanthanum, Barium, Copper and Oxygen compound Later it was found that parts of the material was superconducting at 58 K due to some lead left over from callibrations In 1987 Due to their discovery a research team substituted Yttrium for Lanthanum. This compound is superconducting at 92 K A temperature above the common coolant known as liquid nitrogen The Highest temperature know to create a superconductor is 138 K using a thallium-doped, mercuric-cuprate made of Mercury, Thallium, Barium, Calcium, Copper and Oxygen In 1997 a alloy of gold and indium was discovered to be both a superconductor and magnet at the same time
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