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paradise lost book 1

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Sakinah Suhaimi

on 17 April 2014

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Transcript of paradise lost book 1

paradise lost book 1
john milton

Book 1
Themes
The Importance of Obedience to God
Adam & Eve’s disobedience, Jesus’ resurrection & Satan’s rebellion.
Two main moral paths:
The downward spiral of increasing sin & degradation – Satan
The road to redemption – Adam & Eve
analysis
Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal tast
Brought Death into the World, in all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat, [ 5 ]
Lines 622-669
O Myriads of immortal Spirits, O Powers
Matchless, but with th' Almighty, and that strife
Was not inglorious, though th' event was dire,
As this place testifies, and this dire change [ 625 ]
Hateful to utter: but what power of mind
Foreseeing or presaging, from the Depth
Of knowledge past or present, could have fear'd,
How such united force of Gods, how such
As stood like these, could ever know repulse? [ 630 ]
For who can yet beleeve, though after loss,
That all these puissant Legions, whose exile
Hath emptied Heav'n, shall fail to re-ascend
Self-rais'd, and repossess thir native seat?
For mee be witness all the Host of Heav'n, [ 635 ]
If counsels different, or danger shun'd
By me, have lost our hopes. But he who reigns
Monarch in Heav'n, till then as one secure
Sat on his Throne, upheld by old repute,
Consent or custome, and his Regal State [ 640 ]
Put forth at full, but still his strength conceal'd,
Which tempted our attempt, and wrought our fall.
Henceforth his might we know, and know our own
So as not either to provoke, or dread
New warr, provok't; our better part remains [ 645 ]

John Milton : An epic writer
1604-1674
Biography
Name: John Milton
Born in London, England
From middle class family
Son of composer and musician
Learned Greek, Latin and Hebrew
Married multiple times
Had children but most of them died either young or years later
Worked as Latin Secretary for Cromwell
Lost his vision during job
Turned towards literature
Wrote many poems, sonnets and essays
Best known for his writing Paradise Lost
Famous works:
Paradise Lost
Paradise Regained
Samson Agonistes
Lines 271-374
Lines 375-544
Lines 622-662
Lines 545-621
Lines 75-270
Lines 1-74
Satan rouses the fallen demons
A catalogue of demons
Description of assembling demons
Satan addresses the troop; calls them to war
Lines 663-798
Invocation of the Muse
Satan & Beelzabub wake up in hell
The building of Pandemonium
Hierarchy of the universe.
Eg:

Heaven above, hell below, earth middle.
Hierarchy of God’s creation.

Eg: Angels, humans, animals, devils.
God’s son – archangels – cherubs – Adam – Eve - Earth’s animals - Satan and other fallen angels

The Fall as Partly Fortunate
Adam’s sin is felix culpa or “happy fault”
Allows God to show His mercy & temperence
Display of love and compassion
Individuals can redeem themselves continued devotion and obedience to God

motifs
Light and dark

Opposites – mentioned many times in many ways by Milton in Paradise Lost
Eg. Heaven & Hell, God & Satan, good & evil
Milton uses ‘light’ to represents God & goodness. While ‘dark’ represents Satan & badness.
Eg. Milton asks that he be filled with this light so he can tell his divine story accurately and persuasively. While the absence of light in Hell and in Satan himself represents the absent og God and his grace.

The Geography of the Universe
Four major regions: Glorious, Heaven, Dreadful Hell, Confusing Chaos & Young and Vulnerable Earth in between.
Milton acknowledges the possiibility the sun revolves around the earth and the earth revolves around the sun.


Conversation and Contemplation
The poem contains little action
Conversation – almost five complete books of Paradise Lost, almost half of the text.
Narrative emphasized on: Conversation & Contemplation
Adam & Eve had to maintain conversations between them in order to create their own happiness outside of Paradise after the fall.
Symbols
The Scales in the Sky
As Satan prepares to fight Gabriel when he is discovered in Paradise, God causes the image of a pair of golden scales to appear in the sky. On one side of the scales, he puts the consequences of Satan’s running away, and on the other he puts the consequences of Satan’s staying and fighting with Gabriel. The side that shows him staying and fighting flies up, signifying its lightness and worthlessness. 

These scales symbolize the fact that God and Satan are not truly on opposite sides of a struggle—God is all-powerful, and Satan and Gabriel both derive all of their power from Him. God’s scales force Satan to realize the futility of taking arms against one of God’s angels again.

Adam’s Wreath
The wreath that Adam makes as he and Eve work separately in Book IX is symbolic in several ways. First, it represents his love for her and his attraction to her. But as he is about to give the wreath to her, his shock in noticing that she has eaten from the Tree of Knowledge makes him drop it to the ground. His dropping of the wreath symbolizes that his love and attraction to Eve is falling away. His image of her as a spiritual companion has been shattered completely, as he realizes her fallen state. The fallen wreath represents the loss of pure love.

refers to original sin of Adam and Eve
Brought human death for the first time

Sing Heav'nly Muse, that on the secret top [6]
Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
That Shepherd, who first taught the chosen Seed,
In the Beginning how the Heav'ns and Earth
Rose out of Chaos: Or if Sion Hill
Delight thee more, and Siloa's Brook that flow'd
Fast by the Oracle of God; I thenceInvoke thy aid to my adventrous Song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above th' Aonian Mount, while it pursues
Things unattempted yet in Prose or Rhime.
And chiefly Thou O Spirit, that dost prefer
Before all Temples th' upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first
Wast present, and with mighty wings outspread
Dove-like satst brooding on the vast Abyss
And mad'st it pregnant: What in me is dark
Illumin, what is low raise and support;
That to the highth of this great Argument
I may assert Eternal Providence,
And justifie the wayes of God to men. [26]
Ask God for help
Inspire him to write

Say first, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view [27]
Nor the deep Tract of Hell, say first what cause
Mov'd our Grand Parents in that happy State,
Favour'd of Heav'n so highly, to fall off
From thir Creator, and transgress his Will
For one restraint, Lords of the World besides?
Who first seduc'd them to that foul revolt?
Th' infernal Serpent; he it was, whose guile
Stird up with Envy and Revenge, deceiv'd [35]
Wondering why Adam and Eve go against God order

Conversation between Satan and Beelzebub

Lines 84-186
]


Of unblest feet. Him followed his next Mate, [238]
Both glorying to have scap't the Stygian flood
As Gods, and by thir own recover'd strength,
Not by the sufferance of supernal Power. [241]

Beelzebub followed Satan in the end
Lines 271-374
So Satan spake, and him Beelzebub [271]
Thus answer'd. Leader of those Armies bright,
Which but th' Onmipotent none could have foyld,
If once they hear that voyce, thir liveliest pledge
Of hope in fears and dangers, heard so oft
In worst extreams, and on the perilous edge
Of battel when it rag'd, in all assaults
Thir surest signal, they will soon resume
New courage and revive, though now they lye
Groveling and prostrate on yon Lake of Fire,
As we erewhile, astounded and amaz'd,
No wonder, fall'n such a pernicious highth. [282]
Satan rouses the fallen demons
To work in close design, by fraud or guile
What force effected not: that he no less
At length from us may find, who overcomes
By force, hath overcome but half his foe.
Space may produce new Worlds; whereof so rife [ 650 ]
There went a fame in Heav'n that he ere long
Intended to create, and therein plant
A generation, whom his choice regard
Should favour equal to the Sons of Heaven:
Thither, if but to pry, shall be perhaps
Our first eruption, thither or elsewhere: [ 655 ]
For this Infernal Pit shall never hold
Cælestial Spirits in Bondage, nor th' Abyss
Long under darkness cover. But these thoughts
Full Counsel must mature: Peace is despaird, [ 660 ]
For who can think Submission? Warr then, Warr
Open or understood must be resolv'd.
He spake: and to confirm his words, out-flew
Millions of flaming swords, drawn from the thighs
Of mighty Cherubim; the sudden blaze [ 665 ]
Far round illumin'd hell: highly they rag'd
Against the Highest, and fierce with grasped arms
Clash'd on thir sounding Shields the din of war,
Hurling defiance toward the vault of Heav'n.
Satan opens his address to his followers by praising them, claiming that none save the Almighty could have matched their strength
Satan mentions the rumour, heard in Heaven, of the creation of a new world, and suggests the idea of exploring it, as “celestial spirits” will never be held in bondage by the “infernal pit” of Hell
The building of Pandemonium (670-798)
Utilising the natural mineral wealth of Hell, the devils, under the guidance of the materialist Mammon, construct a great council chamber
Note the pictorial and vividly realistic description of building operations (mining, founding and so on), which gives a sense of Hell as a real place
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