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Unit 1- Matter

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kelly turnbull

on 6 June 2014

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Transcript of Unit 1- Matter

Law of conservation of Mass
States that mass can not be created nor destroyed.

Define mass and volume
Mass is a grouping of parts or elements that compose a unified body of an unspecific size and shape.

Unit 1- Matter
FINAL EXAM EXTRA CREDIT
A liquid has a definite volume no matter what container its in but it does not have a definite shape. The volume of a container always has the same volume and shape.
Volume of a container/liquid
Base Units
Grams-measures mass
Meters- measures length
Liters-measures volume
Unit Prefixes
Deka-10m/1 dm
Hecto-100m/1 hm
Kilo- 1,000m
Deci- 1m/10 dm
Centi- 1m/100cm
Milli- 1m/1,000mm
Proportions of metric units
"
K
ing
H
enry
D
ied
B
y
D
rinking
C
hocolate
M
ilk"
Density is a characteristic property of
matter. It can be used to identify an unknown substance if you have a accurate scale to find the mass, a graduated cylinder to hold it, and any liquid.
Density
Pressure
doesn't change temperature or volume. It only determines the force in an object.
Temperature
cant effect pressure of volume. It changes how fast particles move and how many collisions take place.
Volume
can change pressure but not temperature. If a space changes size then the pressure also increases or decreases.
Unit 2- Energy & States of Matter
PV=nRT
P=Pressure
V= Volume
n=Amount of substance
R=The ideal
T=Temperature
Ideal gas law
Direct and Indirect graphs
1.) Convert °C temperature to K
T = °C + 273
T = 37 °C + 273
T = 310 K
2.) Solve ideal gas law for number of moles
n = PV / RT
n = ( 3.0 atm x 6.2 L ) / ( 0.08 L atm /mol K x 310 K)

n = 0.75 mol

Example #1
Kelly Turnbull
Example Problems
1.) If there are 1000g for every 1kg, calculate the number of grams in 35kg.
1kg = 35kg
x= 35,000
1000g = (x)g

2.) 1000cl=_(X)_L
(X)=10
1cl for every .01L
Example #2
P, V1 =100 cm3, n, T1=273 K

PV1 = nRT1

P, V2 = 87.2 cm3, n, T2 = ?
PV2 = nRT2

Note that P, n, and R are the same.
Plugging in the values:

T2 = 87.2 cm3 x 273 K / 100.0 cm3
T2 = 238 K
238 K (which could also be written as -35°C)

Unit 3- Energy & States
Objective #3: Energy can be transferred in three ways, thermal, phase, and chemical. Thermal energy is stored by a collection of particles that is related to both their mass and velocity. Phase energy is stored in the system due to arrangement. Chemical energy is due to attractions of atoms within molecules.
Objective #4: The water is going through a thermal change because the water is heating up. It is not going through a phase change because it stays a liquid.
Objective #5: This chart shows that the substance went through a thermal change and a phase change. This is because the temperature and the structure of it changes. The boiling point of is 100c and the freezing point is 0c.
Heating/Cooling curve Objective #6
Phase
Thermal
Phase
Thermal
Phase

Objective #7
If you left a glass of ice outside on a sunny day is goes through a thermal and phase change. The ice will melt into a liquid ( phase) and it will heat up (thermal).
Unit 4- Structure and Periodic Table
Periodic Table
Protons have a positive charge
Neutrons have a negative charge
When you have extra protons or neutrons you end up with a charge of either positive or negative depending on what is left over


Properties of metals and nonmetals
Metals
Malleable
Lustrous
Ductile
Good conductors
Nonmetals
Gases
Brittle
Poor conductors
Not lustrous
Periodic Trends
Experiments and Contributions
Danton
: All atoms are made up of atoms
Thomson:
Cathode Ray Tube, electron (-), and Plum pudding model
Rutherford:
Gold foil experiment and he discovered that an atom has a nucleus
Bohr:
Orbitals ( paths for electrons)
Schrodinger
: e- cloud or " fuzzy cloud"
Families (down)
Periods
(across)
Unit 6- Chemical Reactions
Objective #1: Chemical reactions occur when atoms and molecules combine. Nothing is created or destroyed they are just rearranged.
Balanced equations
Objective #4
1).
2
H2 +
1
02=
2

H2O
2).
1
H2 +
1
Cl2=
2
HCl
3).
4
Na+
1
O2=
2
Na2O
Coefficients Objective #5
Coefficients show how many molecules you have. Subscripts tell you how many individual atoms you have.
Types of Chemical Reaction Patterns
Synthesis: 2 reactant and 1 product
Decomposition: 1 reactant and 2 products
Combustion: Only uses carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen
Single reactant: 2 reactants and 2 products (AB+C=AC+CB)
Double reactant: 2 reactants and 2 products (AB+CD=AD+CB)
Unit 7-Counting particles & Solutions
Objective #2 Molar mass:
Al2(CO3)3
Al (x2)= 53.96
C (x3)= 36.03 Total= 185.99
O (x6)= 95.996

Objective #3
Determine the mass of 2.4 moles of CO2.
1m = 2.4m
44.01g = (x)g x= 105.62g or mass

1m = 2.4m
6.02x10`23 = x x= 1.4 x 10`24 molecules
Percent Composition
Al2(CO3)3
Al (x2)= 53.96
C (x3)= 36.03
O (x6)= 95.996
Total= 185.99
Al= 53.96/185.99 29%
C= 36.03/185.99 19%
O= 95.996/185.99 52%
Molarity
Find the molarity of a solution made from 275g of CuSO4 dissolved in enough water to make 4.25L.
1m = (x) mole
159.99g = 275g x=1.72moles

1.72
4.25= M M=.4
Molarity in Dilutions
What volume of concentrated hydrochloric acid is needed to make 3.0L of 1.0M HCl?

M1V1=M2V2

(1M)(3L)= (12.1M)(L)
L=.25
Unit 8- Stoichiometry
How to create/use a BCA table-
-Before
-Change
-After
First write out a balanced equation. Then fill out how many mole you are starting off with. In the change column write how much you are using up and then in the after column write how much is left over.
Objective #4
There is only 700 mol O2 available to the furnace room on a given day while only 10,523g of H2O is produced. What is the percent yield of the reaction?
CH2+ 2 O2= CO2+ 2 H2O
B XS 700 0 0
C -350 -700 +350 +584.12
A XS-350 0 350 584.12

1m= 700m
18g= (x)g x=12,600g of H2O
10,528 /12,600 x 100= 83.5%

Objective #2
The poison gas phosgene, COCL2, reacts with water in the lungs to form hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. How many moles of hydrochloric acid would be formed by 0.835 moles of phosgene?
COCL2+ H2O= 2 HCl+ CO2
B .835 XS 0 0
C -.835 -.835 +1.67 +.835
A 0 XS-.835

1.67
.835

1.67 moles of phosgene
Objective #3
In the electrolysis of 144g of water, how many grams of oxygen are prepared?
1m = x
36.03 = 144g x=4
2 H2O= 2 H2O+ O2
B 4 0 0
C -4 +4 +2
A 0 4 2

1m = 2m
31.99g = xg x=63.8g
Objective#1
H2O
Molar mass: 18.02g
1m = (x)m
18.02g = 100g x=5.6moles

Balanced Chemical equation:

2
H2 +
1
02=
2

H2O
Molecular diagram of H2O
Unit 9- Equilibrium
Objective #1 Factors:
Concentration- The higher the concentration means that the substance is more dense therefore more collisions take place.
Temperature-By increasing the temperature the particles are moving faster so then collisions move faster too.
Particle size-By increasing the surface area more collisions can take place around the particles .
Catalyst- It speeds up a reaction because it makes the particles move faster and makes more collisions take place.
Objective #2 Collision Theory
Concentration, temperature, particle size, and catalysts all affect the amount of collisions that take place.
Two examples from class-
1 Mg+ 2 HCl= 1 MgCl2 + 1 H2
N2+ 3 H2= 2 NH3+ Heat
Objective #3 Equilibrium
A system reaches equilibrium when both products are transferring equal amounts
Le Chatelier's Principle
Objective #4
It predicts the change in conditions during a chemical reaction
If the chemical system changes then it shifts to counteract the impose change and then new equilibrium is made.
Unit 10-Acids and Bases
Acids
- An acid has a pH of 7 and below. Some characteristics are electrolytes, sour taste, turns litmus paper red, and it reacts with metals to form H2 gas.
Bases
- A base has a pH of 7 and above. Some characteristics are electrolytes, bitter taste, turns litmus paper blue, an it has a slippery feeling.
pH scale
pH and pOH calculations
Examples
1.) pH=7 what is the (H+1)
1x10`-7
2.) (H+1)=1x10`-2
pH= 2
Neutralization
A chemical reaction between an acid and base to produce salt and water.
NaOH+ HCl= NaCl= H2O
Base Acid Salt Water
Titration
Quantitatively determine concentration of an unknown solution.
M1V1=M2V2
or
Titrand+volume/known concentration
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