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Sociolinguistics

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Liliana Mantilla

on 1 June 2014

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Transcript of Sociolinguistics

APPLYING SOCIOLINGUISTIC CONCEPTS
Turn-taking
Turn-holders
Wonderful experience...
Gathering information for academic purposes is fascinating.
Conversation teacher and learners.


Terms of address
Formality
Styles
In a car
Sister and brother in-laws
Codeswitching
Talking about the world cup...
Sociolinguistics
Society
* The state of being together with other people.
Linguistics
Each human language is a complex of knowledge and abilities enabling speakers of the language to communicate with each other, to express ideas, hypotheses, emotions, desires, and all the other things that need expressing. Linguistics is the study of these knowledge systems in all their aspects. What properties do all human languages have in common? What are the ways in which languages can change over time, and are there limitations to how languages change?

http://linguistics.ucsc.edu/about/what-is-linguistics.html
Sociolinguistics
Studies the relation between language and society, between the uses of language and the social structures in which users of language live.
Bernard Spolshy
The aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community.
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/
http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/
A large group of people who live together in an organized way, making decisions about how to do things and sharing the work that needs to be done. All the people in a country, or in several similar countries, can be referred to as a society.
* The scientific study of language and its structure, including the study of grammar, syntax, and phonetics.

http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/
It explains why we speak differently in different contexts.
Identifies the social functions of language and the ways it is used to convey social meaning.
http://www.slideshare.net/sarihafizh/introduction-to-sosiolinguistics-31982839
http://www.slideshare.net/sarihafizh/introduction-to-sosiolinguistics-31982839
Application of theoretical concepts of sociolinguistics in the analysis of an excerpt of a conversation.
Conversation 1
Context:

Conversation 2
* University students - basic level English class.
S1: For Senegal... Because of Brazil
2014...

Laughs...

S2: Oh, on the other hand...
(this was said in Spanish)
"Code-switching performs several functions (Zentella, 1985). First, people may use code-switching to hide fluency or memory problems in the second language..."

http://grammar.about.com/od/c/g/codeswitchingterm.htm
Codeswitching
"Passive Voice" lesson delivered in Spanish...
Students 1: ¿Cómo decimos eso en inglés?
Teacher: Sólo pueden tener el verbo... no?
Expuesto es exposed...
Students 2: Profesora
Teacher: Tell me
(this was said in English)
Code-switching is used to mark switching from informal situations (using native languages) to formal situations (using second language). .. to exert control, especially between parents and children... to align speakers with others in specific situations (e.g., defining oneself as a member of an ethnic group). to announce specific identities, create certain meanings, and facilitate particular interpersonal relationships' (Johnson, 2000, p. 184)
http://grammar.about.com/od/c/g/codeswitchingterm.htm
Teacher:
A ustedes les queda bien decir: la moda fue centrada en San Gil.
Students 1:
No, pero es que
nosotros vamos a decir así
, nosotros vamos a decir así - for a week
San Gil will be the center of fashion, health and beauty.
Teacher:
Perfecto, pero
eso no es voz pasiva
,
eso es
futuro...
Students 1:
Pero nosotros no sabemos...
* Ways of signaling that the speaker intends to continue after a break, intended to keep the floor.
* Rules for determining who speaks when in a conversational interchange.
Bernard Spolsky
Woman: Bueno Gonzas... ¿de qué hablamos Gonzas?
Gonzas
as a nickname for Gonzalo Gomez
For the woman saying "Señor Gonzalo" or "Don Gonzalo" is too formal; but addressing him just by "Gonzalo" is too informal. His is about 55 years old so for her is unacceptable to address him just by his first name.
Jargon
Slang
In a car
Sister and brother in-laws
Man:
Eso es otro punto... a la final es casi mejor la guerra que el tal
proceso de paz
... porqué... porque
ahorita se viene el
posconflicto
... tiene la
guerrilla
póngale 30 mil hombres... a ellos no les va a
pagar el mínimo... al
guerrillero raso
va a quedar pagándole malo malo $1.500.000 pesos, ¿quién
paga eso?

These terms are used in this particular moment in Colombia by politicians, but throughout years they have been used under the war era that Colombia suffers.
Jargon
* Speech used by a marked group of people such as a trade or occupation.
Slang
* Sometime rejection to formal rules.
* Terms of address: Ways of addressing people when speaking to them.
* Formality: Degree or care taken with speech.
* Style: Varieties of language used by and individual appropriate to a level of formality.
Bernard Spolsky
It was notorious that the students wanted to have their own saying by doing the activity as they desired, and that the teacher was trying to persuade them while routing the learning processes. The intention of the lesson was to use the passive voice structure intentionally. (They were not in class when the explanation was done).
In repeated moments the teacher was talking to them in Spanish and she kept on uttering English words; it also happened the other way around. It wasn't clear if it was done academically intentionally.
* Accommodation
* Audience Design
* Balanced bilingualism
* Bilingual
* Borrowing
* Clandestine recording
* Conversational interchange
* Domain
* Floor


Other theoretical concepts observed or listened to in this data collection process
* Language Shift
* Observer´s paradox
* Politeness
* Service encounters
* Sociolinguistic interview
* Solidarity
Based on the book of Sociolinguistics
by Bernard Spolsky
Context:

* In a car.
* Brother and sister in law.
Teaching is far beyond giving... it's receiving more from the others...

Learning is far beyond receiving... it's unveiling destiny paths...
Liliana del Pilar Mantilla Lara
2014 -1

Thank you very much for enabling learning.
Full transcript