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Transcript of Cybercrime
"Cyber" = adjective
"Relating to or characteristic of the culture of computers, information technology, and virtual reality."
"Crime" = noun
"An action or omission which constitutes an offence and is punishable by law."
http://oxforddictionaries.com/ The online Oxford Dictionary provides the following definition of Cybercrime:
"Criminal activities carried out by means of computers or the Internet."
However this is a very broad definition of Cybercrime and a more in-depth definition can be found. The website Techopedia breaks down the term Cybercrime more precisely into 2 distinct categories of computer based crime:
1. Crimes that target computer networks or devices. These types of crimes include, but are not limited to the following:
- denial-of-service attacks.
2. Crimes that use computer networks to advance other criminal activities. These types of crimes include, but again are not limited to:
- internet fraud
- identity theft. A Brief History of Cybercrime Cybercrime has its roots in the first forms of computer viruses developed to infect and disrupt early computer systems. With the advent of the first PCs in the early 1970's came the arrival of the first of these computer viruses, such as the Creeper Worm and the Rabbit. Like other viruses of their time, these self-replicating viruses functioned primarily to overload a computer system and cause it to crash. In other words, the computer or computer network was the victim of the crime. Why should we be concerned about Cybercrime? Cybercrime is a significant global issue as it affects
and infiltrates all ambits of society. Anyone who has
a computer and access to the internet is a potential victim of Cybercrime.
The last decade has seen an exponential increase in the rates and types of crimes committed using computers and via the internet, which can, in some way, be attributed to the increase in the numbers of people globally who now have access to a computer and the internet. What does the international
community do to police
and legislate against Cybercrime? The European Council's Convention on Cybercrime is the first international treaty developed to deal specifically with the issue of crimes committed via the internet and other computer networks. The Convention was developed in 2001 as part of the the Council's ongoing action against economic crime and deals specifically with infringements of copyright, computer fraud, child pornography and violations of network security. It also holds power to search computer networks and facilitates procedures to intercept major criminal activity in member States.
The Treaty also operates as a guideline for countries undertaking national legislation of their own against Cybercrime and provides a framework for international cooperation between State Parties who have signed the treaty (CoE, 2001). How does New Zealand deal with the issue of Cybercrime? The New Zealand Police have, in recent years, established a specialist unit, the E-crime Lab, to specfically deal with the issue of Cybercrime.
Along with a number of partner agencies, there is a collaborative effort to investigate and legislate against individual and national cyber criminal activity.
Specialist agencies such as NetSafe offer internet security and cyber safety advice and information to many sectors of society. Part of NetSafe's service is site called The Orb, a private and secure site where incidences of Cybercrime can be reported. http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/01/19/pc_virus_at_20/
Philip Elmer-Dewitt; Ross H. Munro/Lahore (September 26, 1988). "Technology: You Must Be Punished". TIME.
Global Internet Liberty Campaign http://gilc.org/privacy/coe-letter-1000.html
Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/185.htm
Image of Cyber criminal - http://blogbigtime.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/11/cyber-crime-e1352973806221.jpg
Image of http address
Image of Computer and magnifying glass
Image of laptop
Image of European Council flag
The Orb (www.theorb.org.nz)
Global Internet Liberty Campaign
http://gilc.org/ Not until the 1990s with the introduction of the internet, did more sophisticated forms of Cybercrime develop. As internet access became commercially available the rate of cyber-criminal activity increased, became more financially focused and began to cross international boundaries. Cybercrime The very first recognised IBM PC compatible
computer virus was identified in 1986 as "Brain" (http://malware.wikia.com/). The "Brain" virus was considered to be responsible for the first global PC virus epidemic. It was developed and distributed by two brothers, both software engineers working out of Pakistan. When interviewed by Philip Elmer-Dewitt for a Time magazine article in 1988, the brothers maintained they did not develop Brain with any malicious intent. Rather the programme was intended to protect their medical software from piracy. Whatever the intent, and however innocuous the Brain virus was by today's standards, it nonetheless opened the door for the development of more malevolent forms of viruses, worms and trojans to follow.
But what exactly are viruses, worms and trojans and how do they harm your computer? As technologies advance, a correlation with the increase in crimes being committed on other forms
of ICT can also be seen. With the advances in mobile phone technologies and the introduction of Apps,
cyber-criminals are now targeting their activity toward mobile phone devices as the new platform on which to conduct their criminal activity. According to the Norton Cybercrime Report (2012), “Nearly one-third (31 percent) of mobile users received a text message from someone they didn’t know requesting that they click on an embedded link or dial an unknown number to retrieve a ‘voicemail’.” With mobile devices used
all over the world Cybercrime now has even wider reach. Viruses, worms and trojans - what you
should know. How big an issue is Cybercrime
in New Zealand? In New Zealand it is estimated that more than 900,000 people fell victim to cybercrime in the twelve months prior to September 2012, suffering NZ $462.9 million in direct financial losses. These figures are provided in the
Norton Security report on Cybercrime in New Zealand (Norton, 2012), which provides alarming statistics about the level of criminal activity via the internet targeted at New Zealanders. According to the report, there are 2,465 victims of some form of Cybercrime every day, 1.7 victims a second. Although most people would agree that crimes performed against individuals via the internet, or malware attacks on computer networks should be policed and legislated against, there are growing concerns by some parties with regard to how this is done, and the impact on civil liberties (Rouse, 2010).
In particular, organisations such as the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), argue that governments are in danger of significant breaches of individual privacy in an endeavour to provide greater security against cyber threats (searchsecurity.techtarget.com).
This is a contentious issue. I feel that, in an age where we are living with a crime threat that has no face and no jurisdictional boundaries, we should be prepared to forfeit some of our civil liberties in the interests of individual and national security. What some
commentators have to say
about Cybercrime and the
policing of it? What can you
do to protect yourself
from Cybercrime? There are steps you can take to safeguard yourself and your computer against Cybercrime attacks.
ensure that your computer is protected with regularly updated security software and ensure that your wireless is secure
ensure that your computer operating systems and software are regularly updated
make regular backups of your files such as photos, music and in particular any confidential personal or business files you don't wish to lose should your computer become corrupted by malware
ensure that you choose strong passwords at all times and be sure not to use any obvious clues which may make it easy to guess your password.
NetSafe's Security Central website provides detailed information about how to safeguard yourself against Cybercrime.
Commonsense plays an important role in safeguarding yourself against criminal activity online. Be careful about the information you make available over the internet, and think carefully about opening links which do not seem to be genuine, in particular from any website which may be asking for personal details that might appear to be from a bank or other corporation which may already hold your information. Chances are, if they are asking for your personal details or data, they are not the legitimate company. References Lizzie Waipara
TEPS121: Module 3-Activity 1