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Ancient Rome GRAPES
Transcript of Ancient Rome GRAPES
Mythical founding of Rome
Wasn't it like the Greeks?
Roman myth and the calendar
Roman myth names our planets
The Appian Way
Rome is located on the Italian peninsula,
protected by the Alps
on the Tiber River
Romans borrowed much of their mythology from the Greeks
Zeus = Jupiter
Poseidon = Neptune
Roman gods were more "ethereal"
more heavenly and less earthly
The difference was that Romans focused less on this life and more on their afterlife than the Greeks
Hades = Pluto
Ares = Mars
Hermes = Mercury
Aphrodite = Venus
Cronus = Saturn
Uranus = god of sky
Roman soldiers, because of their bravery, thought they would go the Elysian fields after death.
Our months are named after Roman gods:
Janus = two faced god, saw both the beginning and end
Mars = god of war, wars started when weather got warmer
Aphrodite = goddess of beauty and renewal (April showers)
Maia = goddess of fertility (May flowers)
Juno = queen of the gods
SEPT, OCT, NOV, DEC
7, 8, 9, 10
The Romans built aqueducts to supply their cities with running water
The aqueducts, and also domes, were made possible by the Roman invention of the arch
The Romans built large bath complexes because they had running water
The baths served not only for hygeine but for socializing among the various social classes
Much like our modern day pools
Aqueducts mean Roman baths
The Romans developed a technique for mixing lightweight but sturdy concrete
sometimes pots and other materials thrown in
Why is concrete important?
Allowed the Romans to build immense structures including domed buildings and extensive walls with ease.
The Romans built an extensive brick road network starting with their main road, the Appian Way.
Why was the Appian Way important?
The Roman road network allowed the Romans to rule over a large territory.
The Roman legions could move quickly over paved road
All roads lead to Rome?
Greece is over here
Romulus and Remus.
Rome founded at the bend of the Tiber River.
Twins set on separate hills by gods.
Romulus kills Remus and becomes first king.
How Rome was founded
one of the most remarkable architectural achievements of Ancient Rome was the Pantheon
built in 126 CE as a temple to ALL the gods, hence the name pantheon
The Roman Empire was centrally located within the Mediterranean.
Like Greece, they had a trade advantage
Unlike Greece, Rome had room to grow and also fields for food
While the Romans couldn't build curved roads, they were able to masterfully create other geometric designs.
Series of wars between a young Rome and Carthage
There were three wars between Rome and Carthage. The end result was that Rome gained all of Carthage's territory.
Side note: Africa gained its name from the winning Roman General Scipio Africanus
Who won the battle?
The Colosseum Today
Colosseum voted as one of the new 7 wonders of the world in 2007
Has religious use
USC Coliseum – 85,000
Georgia Dome – 75,000
If the defeated gladiator was wounded, he could ask for mercy by raising an arm; then the audience shouted to the emperor
Thumbs up Thumbs down
A person would come around and make sure that all the wounded were dead
Then what happened?
**The gladiator fights were carefully orchestrated
like pro wrestling.
Gladiators didn’t all get the same weapons
Gladiators didn’t get to pick what they liked best
The audience liked consistent characters
Like we like to root for the same team
12 Gladiator Types
Audience loved the gladiator events the most
There was a break when they removed bodies and got new sand
Gladiators then entered to Trumpets and audience screaming
What do we have that is like this today?
The Main Event
The emperor who fought in the Colosseum
Fought the helpless
Was considered a huge weirdo
Eventually was assassinated
Gladiator comes from the word for sword
*Rarely were they people who had to fight against their will
*Prisoners of war given a choice
They had great popularity
Women paid large sums of money to spend a night with them
Who were the gladiators?
Let’s get ready to rummmmmmmbllllllllllllllllllllllllle!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
*Shows were link b/t emperor and citizens
Distracted them from problems
Who is them?
What kind of problems?
Why are Colosseum events important to history?
Events in the Colosseum
4. Sylvae – hunts and elaborate execution
Backdrops brought in, animals hunted, criminals executed as characters
5. Less cruel and unique events
Famous writing elephant
1. Venationes – fights between exotic animals and with animals
2. Gladiatorie – fights between human gladiators
Most popular of all the events
3. Naumachie – simulated sea battles
Accounts vary the accuracy
Events in the Colosseum
Originally the Flavian Amphitheater
Flavius was the name of emperors Vaspasian and Titus
Built in about 10 years
Originally could seat 80,000
Gladiator fights helped give Romans their identity
Numbed them to constant war.
Their passion is like the passion we have for some of the more violent movies
Only difference is reality
Why? It seems cruel to us
Gladiators entered and walked to the emperor and said Cesare morituri te salutant
Caesar, we who are about to die salute you.
Why would the gladiators do that?
The Main Event
Roman Social Structure Paradox
Christianity and the Colosseum
Roman government did not approve of Christians until Constantine
Many Christians were fed to the lions as punishment for treason
What is treason?
Retarius - fisherman
Big & slow
Murmillo – fish man
“Sigh and awe of all the girls”
We will look at the Colosseum and how the gladiators represented a popular but complicated social structure.
Why are people like "The Situation" popular?
Patrician, Plebian, Slave
The Romans and Greeks developed a unique idea:
"citizenship" - simultaneous rights and duties of a person to their state
this is in contrast to other civilizations (like China or Egypt) where people were considered "subjects."
Cives Romani - people from the city of Rome
Latini - people from outside Rome but inside Italy
all rights except a legal marriage
Federati - people from places which surrendered to Rome or had a treaty
limited rights if they served the military
Peregrini - foreigners from conquered land
could get equal rights, case by case basis
the great emperor, Trajan, was a peregrini
Protection from foreigners
Paterfamilias (kids were citizens)
Could move and still have same rights
Could sue and be sued
No death penalty (unless for treason)
No Roman citizen could be put to death on cross
Made of precious metals, like bronze or silver.
Originally depicted famous ancestors, until Caesar printed coins with his image on them.
Why would this be an important change?
Eventually, Roman coins lose their value.
Less precious materials (less expansion)
More Money = More Problems
Increased amount of money leads to higher prices for everday goods.
Inflation leads to the downfall of Rome
From the Latin word "Censere", to estimate.
Carried out every five years to determine population and the property of citizens.
Social standing determined by size of land/property.
Also determined taxes, number of soldiers, and the Empire's budget
Why was the census so important to Ancient Rome? Today?
The Highway System
Extensive road systems allowed for not only faster travel for the army, but also communication and trade throughout the expanding empire.
Free born women were citizens but could not vote or hold office.
Women were expected to marry (age 17-20) and bear children
Some women held special religious significance.
naked and fast
After Rome's win over Carthage it continues to conquer new lands.
As Rome conquers new lands it offers citizenship to its new people
This helped create a unified territory
kept rebellion to a minimum
A Republic is Born
Republic: Democratic government where the citizens are allowed to vote to select people to represent them and then vote on their behalf
America and Australia are both a Republic
Rome's Government was ran by:
2 consuls - elected
300 member senate - elected
Rome's Republic lasts roughly 500 years
The Senate is Replaced
Power transitions to a triumvirate: Government ran by 3 people with "equal" power
Marcus Crassus - Richest man in Rome
Julius Caesar - General
Gaeus Pompeius - Military Hero
1st Triumvirate Fails
1. Crassus Dies in Syria
2. Caesar & Pompeius get locked into a bitter civil war
3. Caesar defeats Pompeius
4. Caesar declares himself emperor of Rome
Julius Caesar re-establishes the senate but increases its size from 300 to 900
Filled it with friends, family, etc...
Caesar starts to think of himself as a god
This freaks out even his closest friends
They take a vote and decide to kill him
"Beware the ides of March"
Creates the solar calendar, which bases the year by the Earth's position to the sun
He gets a whole month to himself!
2nd Triumvirate is formed
1. Octavian - Caesar's grandnephew
2. Antony - Caesar's assistant
3. Lepidus - Commander of the cavalry
2nd Triumvirate Falls
1. Lepidus dies in battle
2. Antony & Octavian get locked into a civil war
Antony sides with Egypt and falls in love with a famous queen
3. Octavian destroys Antony's army and becomes Rome's next emperor
Senate still in "power" and gives Octavian a new name and title
Augustus - The Revered One
Imperator - Emperor (first to officially have this title)
Creates the power of appointment for the next emperor
Gives each emperor the right to name his heir
Tries to limit civil war (not that successful)
Killed his mother
Burned Rome to the ground
The Pax Romana meant The Roman Peace
It was a time of peace that lasted for 200 years
Citizens received public aid
The Pax Romana was headed up by the 5 Good Emperors
1. Nerva - Famous for creating a peaceful transition of power to the next emperor
2. Trajan - First non-Italian emperor, Rome was at its greatest size under his rule
3. Hadrian - Created a massive wall that stretched across the entire island of the United Kingdom to keep out barbarians
4. Pius - Conquered part of Central Asia
5. Marcus Aurelius - Wrote a famous book of meditations while watching his army crush Germanic barbarians
Roman Republic Government Structure