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Characteristics & Life Cycle of Stars

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clover317 Du

on 3 June 2014

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Transcript of Characteristics & Life Cycle of Stars

THE LIFE CYCLE OF STARS
Betelgeuse
Sun
Sirius
Polaris
Spica
Alnitak
APPARENT MAGNITUDE 0.87
ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE -0.63
COLOUR TEMPERATURE Orange
RANGE DEGREES CELSIUS 3500 to 5000
APPARENT MAGNITUDE -26.8
ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE 4.3
COLOUR TEMPERATURE Yellow
RANGE DEGREES CELSIUS 5000 to 6000
APPARENT MAGNITUDE 1.97
ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE -3.64
COLOUR TEMPERATURE Yellow-white
RANGE DEGREES CELSIUS 6000 to 7500
APPARENT MAGNITUDE 1.45
ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE -1.5
COLOUR TEMPERATURE White
RANGE DEGREES CELSIUS 7500 to 11000
APPARENT MAGNITUDE 0.98
ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE -3.55
COLOUR TEMPERATURE Blue-white
RANGE DEGREES CELSIUS 11000 - 25000
APPARENT MAGNITUDE 1.74
ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE -5.26
COLOUR TEMPERATURE Blue
RANGE DEGREES CELCIUS 25000–50000
Aldebaran
By: Marina, Nancy and Sophia

The cycle begins when parts of the nebula collapse on itself
to form denser regions with stronger gravitational forces.

When the temperature in the core rises to 15 million degrees Celsius, nuclear fission begins. Hydrogen atoms fuse to form Helium atoms. This process produces energy that makes the nebula around the star glow.
Ejner Hertz sprung organized the data into an H-R Diagram that plots absolute magnitude against the surface temperature.
90% of stars fall onto the main sequence. A higher mass means it is brighter, hotter, and bluer. The other 10% are either red giants or white dwarfs.
Our Sun is happily nowhere near the end of its cycle. It probably took approximately 30 million years to begin glowing. On the H-R Diagram it is near the middle of the main sequence. The Sun is a pretty average star.
A dense sphere that begins to emit energy is formed.
Birth
Nuclear fusion is used to continue its life.
Main Sequence
A red giant is formed by using up hydrogen and other fuels
Old Age
A white dwarf is formed
or
the star explodes as a supernova
Death
The star becomes cold and lifeless
or
forms a black hole
Remains
APPARENT MAGNITUDE 0.41
ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDE -5.6
COLOUR TEMPERATURE Red
RANGE DEGREES CELSIUS 2000 to 3000
When a star reaches old age....
there are
2
things that can happen
Stars that have a mass
equal
to or
less
than the sun will become a
RED GIANT
These stars will become larger and redder as they gradually runs out of hydrogen fuel
A helium-rich core will form
As the hydrogen runs out, the outward flow of energy will start to slow down, and the core will contract.
This contraction will heat the core, which then heats the outer layer, causing it to expand. Nuclear fusion will once again commence.
Temperature and pressure will build once again, and the core will also undergo fusion, producing heavier metals, such as
carbon
.

C2

As the star expands, dust and gas are sent into space, causing it to lose mass.
When nuclear fusion finally stops, the star "dies".
Without the outward pressure from fusion, the core will collapse from its own gravity.
The outer layers drift away until all that is left is the hot core, the "White Dwarf"
A beautiful planetary nebula is created from the UV light of the core illuminating the shed gas and dust.
The White Dwarf will continue to emit energy until it cools and its light goes out, leaving a dark cold matter called a "black dwarf".
Stars that are
10 times (or more) larger
than the sun will become a
RED SUPER GIANT
Like the sun, a massive star will restart nuclear fusion.
However, in a star more massive then the sun, the core will become so hot that even the carbon will undergo fusion.
Heavier metals will be produced starting from
oxygen
and ending with
iron
.
Nuclear fusion will stop after the formation of iron, as more energy is used than created.
The star will collapse and the core will stop the inward rush of gas, causing them to fly backwards with such force that....

O
2
Fe
a
SUPERNOVA
is created
A series of shock waves is released in the process, creating a rapidly growing nebula from the gas and dust.
So much energy is released that nuclear fusion reactions are possible, which create the additional elements on the periodic table.
The supernova that created the Crab Nebula (observed in 1054) was so bright that it was even visible during daylight hours.
For the core that is left behind after the explosion, there is yet again 2 possibilities.
FOR STARS WITH AN INITIAL MASS OF 10-30 SOLAR MASSES
FOR STARS WITH AN INITIAL MASS OVER 30 SOLAR MASSES
The core becomes a NEUTRON STAR
They are tiny, roughly the size of a city
10km
They are incredibly dense and can have gravity 300,000 times that of Earth's
10^30kg
Neutron Stars are also known as "Pulsars" for their incredible rotation speeds and their high-frequency radio waves that we detect as pulses.
rotations starting at hundreds of times per second
The core becomes a BLACK HOLE
The core left behind is so massive that it collapses in on it self to form an EXTREMELY dense core, (not an actual "hole").
It's gravitational pull is so strong that all matter, even light cannot escape, meaning it also cannot be seen.
However, it's effects can be. The gas and dust around it form a disc and spiral towards the core, as if going down a drain or "hole".
The matter around the black hole heats up and emits powerful x-ray radiation before disappearing. This radiation can be detected by satellites.
They can also be seen from thousands of light years away
These stars will also become larger and redder as they gradually runs out of hydrogen fuel
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