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Copy of Copy of The Roman Empire
Transcript of Copy of Copy of The Roman Empire
Historians often look for evidence
of the past in
myths and legends.
is a record that was created at or near the time of the event by an
Examples include: letters, diaries, speeches,
poems, songs, and paintings.
Archeologists gather evidence about the past from material culture and artifacts.
In 79 AD, the Roman city of
was buried by thick layers of rock and ash resulting from the eruption of nearby Mt. Vesuvius.
Section 2 The Empire at its Height
Yet, as the Roman Republic grew ever larger, it encountered political, social, and economic problems.
Romans began looking
for a strong ruler,
and they found him
Many senators, however, suspected that the people
would make Caesar their king, and they assassinated
means to murder a well known
or important person.
Caesar's assassination threw Rome into civil war.
Eventually, though, the adopted son of Julius Caesar,
Because no process for succession was established,
some of the rulers after Augustus were good, some
were bad. In the first century, Emperor Nerva started a tradition when he adopted a successor to follow him.
Emperor Marcus Aurelius
was a noble, peace-loving
scholar.Yet he spent most of his reign fighting wars
along the empire's eastern borders.
With the end of the reign of
Marcus Aurelius, came the end
of the Pax Romana.
Checking for Understanding -2
2. Do you feel that Diocletian was right - that the Roman
Empire was too large to rule effectively ?
Give at least two reasons you would use for your decision.
Checking for Understanding -1
1. A record that was created at or near the time
of an event is known as:
a. an artifact
b. a primary source
c. a secondary source
2. A good example of this type of written record
would be a history book.
a. material culture
b. primary source
c. secondary source
3. This is the term for buildings, tools, and
other objects that shape how people live:
b. material culture
c. relevant findings
Section 3 The Western Empire Collapses
Even during the Pax Romana, there were signs of weakness in the empire.
In an effort to increase the loyalty of these diverse people,
granted citizenship to all free men in 212 A.D.
decline in city population - rich move to latifundias
gap between rich & poor
slavery taking Roman jobs
weakening of trade & farming
because of constant war
corrupt government officials
armies made up of many
soldiers who have
less loyalty to Rome
civil wars between generals
weak central government
size & makeup of empire
a decrease in loyalty
In the late 300s, a terrifying group of nomadic barbarians from Central Asia known as
and led by a warrior named
attacked and forced many peaceful
the "relative security" of the Roman Empire.
Many historians disagree about precisely why the Western
Roman Empire collapsed, but most do agree on one point.
By the mid to late 400s, the Germanic tribes had settled down in Roman territory and were setting up
which the Romans could not oust. The Western Roman Empire was beginning to fall apart.
Section 4 The Lasting Contributions of Rome
The Roman Empire is gone. Nevertheless, Rome left
a rich legacy to the world.
In Art, paintings, sculptures, mosaics, and frescoes were common.
In Architecture, however, Roman engineers really excelled. Most of their works were
structures built by the government for public use.
The introduction of the Twelve Tables
was the beginning of a long legal tradition
in which laws were written down clearly,
so every Roman could understand them.
good government is based on the rule of law.
As the Empire grew, so too
did the number of citizens
who lived outside of Italy.
Like Roman Law, the Roman's language,
spread throughout the empire. Long after the fall of the empire, educated people still used Latin to communicate.
Early on, Roman authorities persecuted Christians.
Checking for Understanding - 4
Checking for Understanding -3
Although Latin and Christianity became widespread,
thank goodness Roman Numerals didn't.
The Romans believed that good government was based on the rule of law,
equal rights under the law (including the law that states a person is innocent
until proven guilty - from the Twelve Tables), and the right to participate in their government. Today, many countries' legal systems, including the United States, reflect the Roman concept of law and justice.
1. In an effort to increase loyalty in a diverse empire,
Emperor Caracalla granted citizenship to all free
men in 212 A.D.
problems of the Roman Empire were numerous
and serious: slavery, civil wars, high taxes, poverty, a weak
central government, corrupt officials, failing trade and
farming, an army made up largely of foreigners, and a
general decline in communication, education, and loyalty.
4. Languages based on Latin (the language of the Romans),
like Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Romanian,
are spoken by tens of millions of people today.
They are known as:
a. Dialectic Languages
b. Neo-Latin Languages
c. Romance Languages
1. What two Roman innovations were used to create
aqueducts, large domed buildings, public baths,
sewer systems, bridges and paved roads.
a. fire and the wheel
b. the pulley and fulcrum
c. concrete and the arch
2. Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire
and eventually became a powerful European
a. Emperor Constantine allowed Christians to worship freely.
b. Christians gained control of the Roman government.
c. Christianity served as the foundation of Greek mythology
which the Romans adopted as their own.
3. Citizenship gave Romans the right to participate
in their government and access to Roman courts.
Two other concepts, however, formed the basis
of their legal system.
What were they ?
What made them so important ?
4. Corrupt officials, in part, brought about the fall of
the Roman Empire. What does
a. the formal investigation new complaints
b. the creation of new jobs and positions
c. the use of a position of trust for dishonest gain
is an account written
after an event has happened
A good example
would be a history book.
Historians look for evidence in two types
of written sources.
are things made by
human hands, like weapons,
jewelry, and cooking utensils.
consists of the
buildings, tools, and other objects
that shape how people live.
Political leaders became "out of touch" with
many citizen groups in the provinces.
Slaves, brought back from conquest,
began taking over jobs once held by
Roman citizens. Joblessness created
chaos that resulted in riots and revolts.
The reign of Augustus began a period
of peace and prosperity known as the
or "Roman Peace. His reign was marked by reforms
in government and the army. Augustus began over
100 colonies, settled mainly by former soldiers.
These colonies helped spread Roman law
and culture across the empire.
Diocletian believed that this vast, diverse empire had become too large for one person
to rule effectively
(from border to border, it was about the size of the U.S. without Alaska).
So, in the late 200s,
Diocletian divided the empire into two parts
and chose loyal officials to help him rule. At first, this seemed to help, but ultimately this did not solve the empire's problems.
is membership in a political
community that brings both rights
Citizenship brought with it two important benefits:
- One was
the right to participate in government.
- Another was
equal access to Roman courts.
The Roman Army, stretched thin because of
the size of the empire, could not hold them back.
Eventually the Huns themselves invaded the Roman Empire.
In 476, the Visigoths attacked the city of Rome and forced the last
emperor of the Western Roman Empire to leave office.
Within the Roman court system, laws were changed or added over the centuries, but two legal concepts dominated Rome's legal system:
all Romans had equal rights under the law.
The makeup of the empire
or consisting of different
The Romans needed laws that dealt with what,
in effect, were "foreigners." These laws formed
the basis for
modern international law.
Today, tens of millions of people speak
- languages based
on Latin. They include Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, and Romanian.
"Salve, quid rerum geritis?
Civis Romanus sum."
"Maria habuit parvum agnum."
In the 300s,
allowed Christians to worship freely.
With this protection, the Christian Church
grew into a powerful religious institution.
T or F
Chapter One Overview
evidence about the past
in myths & legends, primary sources, secondary sources, and material culture.
Romans have left historians with a wealth of documents and artifacts to interpret.
offers an especially rich variety of material culture.
Historians are always questioning and re-evaluating their views of the past.
The "Roman Republic" lasted from 510 BC to 31 BC, when "Octavian"
first emperor of Rome.
begun under the reign of Augustus, the Roman Empire expanded to include Western Europe and most of the region bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
By the third century, the Roman Empire had become too large for an emperor to rule effectively.
"Emperor Diocletian" split the Roman Empire in two.
"Emperor Caracalla" tried to increase loyalty in the provinces by
to all free males.
"The reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire"
the size of the empire, civil wars, high taxes, decreased trade
and farm production, a lack of effective communication,
slavery taking jobs from ordinary Romans, the gap between
the rich and poor, an army made up of many foreigners with less loyalty to Rome, a weak central government with corrupt officials, and barbarian invasions.
The collapse of the Western Roman Empire resulted in
a period of chaos - trade, travel & education declined.
was based on two principles:
1. Good government is based on the rule of law.
2. All citizens must have equal rights under the law.
was based on two principles:
1. Citizenship allows people the right to participate in government.
2. Citizenship allows people access to the court system.
Today, many countries have legal systems based on Roman law, and millions speak
based on Latin.
Roman engineers utilized two innovations to build great buildings, aqueducts, bridges, and roads:
the arch & concrete.
was a persecuted religion. Later, when
allowed Christians to worship freely, Christianity grew and helped to unify the empire.
Many of these people felt little loyalty
to Rome or its rulers.
The empire was made up of diverse peoples, many from far away lands, each with their
own language and culture.
Ten years later,
king of the Franks, defeated the last Roman army in Gaul. By the 500s, the Western Empire was no more than a memory.
When the city was finally uncovered almost 1,700 years later, it yielded some of the best examples of Roman material culture.
The emperors Trajan, Hadrian,
and Marcus Aurelius were the
This adoption system produced
a group of rulers known as the
The use of slave labor in farming discouraged improvements
in the technology that may have improved farming.
The distribution of news became more difficult, and people became less informed about civic matters.
The high cost of education put it out of
the reach of most people.
The Roman Republic ended, and
the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
Civil wars erupted in the Roman Empire, mostly over who would become the next emperor, and it was only when a capable ruler known as
took power, that the chaos ended.
with all the diverse elements within this vast empire during this time was
limited to the speed of a horse or ship. The cost of the
of the empire was increasing
of Romans in the empire was slowly decreasing.
The Roman Empire
Not long after, Roman armies from all over the empire were called back to defend Rome. With Attila's death in A.D. 453, however, the Huns, exhausted by disease, starvation, and manpower losses, withdrew to their Central Asian homeland.
Citizenship brought with it two important benefits.
What were they ?
Citizenship is membership in a political community
that brings both rights and responsibilities.
I drove the men who slaughtered my father into exile with a legal order,
punishing their crime, and afterwards, when they waged war on the state,
I conquered them in two battles.
- Augustus Caesar
"The Deeds of the Divine Augustus" 14 AD
The year was 476. For those who demand to know the date Rome fell, that is it. Others will realize that the fall
of Rome was not an event but a process. Or to put it another way, there was no fall at all - ancient Roman civilization simply became something else, which is called medieval. [ It evolved into another civilization, the civilization of the Middle Ages. ]
Finley Cooper "Roman Realities" 1967 AD
"Meanwhile, among the many [British] leaders, one superior to the rest in valour and
in birth, Galgacus by name, is said to have thus harangued the multitude gathered around him and clamoured for battle --
“Do you suppose that the Romans will be as brave in war as they are licentious in peace? To our strifes and discords they owe their fame, and they turn the errors of an enemy to the renown of their own army, an army which, composed as it is of every variety of nations, is held together by success and will be broken up by disaster. These Gauls and Germans, and, I [Galgacus] blush to say, these Britons, who, though they lend their lives to support a stranger’s rule, have been its enemies longer than its subjects, you cannot imagine to be bound by fidelity and affection. Fear and terror there certainly are, feeble bonds of attachment; remove them, and those who have ceased to fear will begin to hate."
From: Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola, 29-33
The discovery of Pompeii, and the new information it uncovered, changed some
of the assumptions historians had about how the Romans lived.
such as Pompeii,
often change the way we look at history.
Its discovery brought to light many aspects
of Roman daily life that could only be known by uncovering this city "frozen in time."
They used the
arch and concrete
to build huge buildings, aqueducts, public baths, marketplaces, gardens, bridges, and roads.
Most agree that the
problems of the empire
might have been solved eventually, had it not been
The strengths of the
were its commitment to:
These are stories passed down
through time, often with
a mix of fact and fiction.
4. How can material culture tell us anything about how
earlier people lived ?
- the rule of law and equal justice
- the rights of citizens to vote and elect officials
Whenever I consider the origin of this war [with Rome] and the necessities of
our position, I have a sure confidence that this day, and this union of yours, will
be the beginning of freedom to the whole of Britain. To all of us, slavery is a thing
unknown; there are no lands beyond us, and even the sea is not safe, menaced as
we are by a Roman fleet. And thus in war and battle, in which the brave find
glory, even the coward will find safety.' "
From: "Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola, 29-33 AD"
The Roman Empire inherited many of the problems encountered by the Roman Republic. And so the end of the Pax Romana brought about a chaotic period of time.
The Fall of Rome had a profound effect on the future of Western Europe.
Survival skills became more important than
academic skills, and learning, and innovation
suffered. Europe would enter a period
of history many people call
The Dark Ages.
Any trade after the Fall of Rome would become
regional as travel became difficult and dangerous.
Cities declined as trade decreased, and most people
were forced to turn to farming simply to survive.
Violence & chaos would grip much of the continent.
Years of civil wars and barbarian invasions had
destroyed large farms devoted to specialized trade.
5. How can
the way historians look at the past
change over time ?
5. What were three consequences of the Fall of Rome?
- civic responsibility
1. As the Roman Republic expanded, it experienced problems.
Name three of those problems.
As the empire expanded, the gap between the rich and poor increased. Endless wars destroyed farms and hurt trade, and poor people grew poorer as a result. Defending the empire's long borders was expensive, so taxes were raised. In addition, the Roman army was now made up of many "foreign" soldiers who were less loyal to Rome.
Poor people worked as farmers on the estates or joined the army.
Some even became outlaws. Cities became less important,
and over time, the estates became self-sufficient "mini towns."
This way of life shaped European society for centuries
Economic difficulties like these led to unrest in the cities.
Wealthy people became afraid and fled to their country
where they raised their own food
and hired guards to protect them.
A weak central government led to
the use of a position of trust for dishonest gain, which
made things worse. Corrupt tax collectors often charged more than was owed and kept the extra.
le Latin n'est pas mort
no muerto esta el Latin
el Latina não muerto esta
el Latină nu muerto esta
el latino no esta muerto
Alma Mater: fostering mother
Aula Magna: lecture hall
Curriculum vitae: the course of my life
Campus: field of action
Et Cetera: and so forth and so on
was a successful soldier-emperor
who presided over the greatest military expansion
in Roman history, leading the empire to reach its greatest size. He also began extensive public building programs which increased
the number of Roman jobs, and
started social welfare policies
which provided aid for the poor.
was a highly capable ruler. He tightened the Roman army's discipline and strengthened the empire's border defenses.
He continued Trajan's welfare program
for the poor, and visited various provinces
to inspect provincial government himself.
After Rome fell, Europeans would not be able to depend upon the stability that the government had provided.
Most historians agree, though, that these problems may have
eventually been resolved had it not been for one
problem. What was that external problem ?
Remember that Roman citizenship provided the right
to participate in the government and equal access to the Roman court system.
Can you imagine: