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Ancient Rome

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Hana Goss

on 7 April 2014

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Transcript of Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome
Location
Rome is located in the country of Italy. The climate in Italy has
mostly warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Italy's mild
climate allows people to grow crops like: Grains, citrus fruits, grapes, and olives. A plentiful of food supply was one key factor in Rome's early growth
Key people
Aeneas
- A Trojan hero who fled with his followers. After a long and dangerous journey, he reached Italy. The story
Aeneid
is a story of his trip written by Virgil.

Romulus and Remus
- They were rescued and raised by a wolf. Romulus later killed Remus and built the city of Rome.

Cincinnatus
- A famous dictator who gained power in 458 BC. He was a farmer at first, but the Romans choose him to defend the city. He defeated the city enemies. Ohio named a city after him called Cincinnati.

Hannibal
- The brilliant general that led the Carthage to attack Rome in the Punic Wars. He was consider one of the greatest generals of the ancient world.

Gaius Marius
- Is a consul, encouraged the poor people to join the army. Before only people who joined the army had been allowed to join. Then thousands of poor people join the Rome's army. Then finally he became enemies with another consul, Lucius Cornelius Sulla

Lucius Cornelius Sulla
- A politician who became a consul in 88BC. Soon he became into conflict with Marius a conflict that caused a civil war between Rome

Spartacus
-He was a gladiator who led thousands of slaves,Then they rose up and demanded freedom. He and his army stop them and took over much of southern Italy. He was killed in battle and without his revolt fell apart.
Culture
Rome's culture famed on seven hills, and its monumental architecture such as the Flavian Amphitheatre (now called the Colosseum), the Forum of Trajan, and the Pantheon.The city also had several theaters, gymnasia, and many taverns, baths, and brothels.
Clothing
Rome
In ancient Rome, the cloth and the dress distinguished one class of people from the other class. The tunic worn by plebeians (common people) like shepherds was made from coarse and dark material, whereas the tunic worn by patricians was of linen or white wool. A magistrate would wear the tunica angusticlavi; senators wore tunics with purple stripes (clavi), called tunica laticlavi. Military tunics were shorter than the ones worn by civilians.
The many types of togas were also named. Boys, up until the festival of Liberalia, wore the toga praetexta, which was a toga with a crimson or purple border, also worn by magistrates in office. The toga virilis, (or toga pura) or man's toga was worn by men over the age of 16 to signify their citizenship in Rome. The toga picta was worn by triumphant generals and had embroidery of their skill on the battlefield. The toga pulla was worn when in mourning.
Even footwear indicated a person’s social status. Patricians wore red and orange sandals, senators had brown footwear, consuls had white shoes, and soldiers wore heavy boots. Women wore closed shoes of colors such as white, yellow, or green.
The bulla was a locket-like amulet worn by children. When about to marry, the woman would donate her bulla(sometimes called partha) to the household gods, along with her toys, to signify maturity and womanhood.[citation needed]
Men typically wore a toga, and women wore a stola.
The woman's stola was a dress worn over a tunic, and was usually brightly colored. A fibula (or brooch) would be used as ornamentation or to hold the stola in place. A palla, or shawl, was often worn with the stola

Religion
The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety (pietas) in maintaining good relations with the gods. According to legendary history, most of Rome's religious institutions could be traced to its founders, particularly Numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome, who negotiated directly with the gods. This archaic religion was the foundation of the mos maiorum, "the way of the ancestors" or simply "tradition", viewed as central to Roman identity. The word religio itself is of Latin origin, albeit unattested before the 1st century BC, and has an original meaning of "strict or (excessively) scrupulous observance" of the mos maiorum.The Roman triumph was at its core a religious procession in which the victorious general displayed his piety and his willingness to serve the public good by dedicating a portion of his spoils to the gods, especially Jupiter, who embodied just rule. As a result of the Punic Wars (264–146 BC), when Rome struggled to establish itself as a dominant power, many new temples were built by magistrates in fulfillment of a vow to a deity for assuring their military success.
Wars and Battles
The Punic Wars- The Punic Wars were fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC
.

First Punic war
- The First Punic War was fought largely over the island of Sicily. This meant a lot of the fighting was at sea where Carthage had the advantage of a much stronger navy than Rome. However, Rome quickly built up a large navy of over 100 ships. Rome also invented the corvus, a type of assault bridge that allowed Rome's superior soldiers to board enemy navy vessels. Rome soon dominated Carthage and won the war.

Second Punic War
- In the Second Punic War, Carthage had more success fighting against the Roman legions. The Carthage leader and general, Hannibal, made a daring crossing of the Alps to attack Rome and northern Italy. This crossing was made more famous because he also brought a large number of elephants with him. Hannibal was a brilliant general and won several battles against the Romans. However, despite fighting for 16 years, Hannibal wasn't able to conquer the city of Rome. When Rome counterattacked his homeland of Carthage, Hannibal was forced to retreat. The final battle in this war was the Battle of Zama where the Roman general Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal.

Third Punic Wa
r- In the Third Punic War Rome attacked the city of Carthage. After three years of laying siege to the city, the Roman army broke through the walls and burned it to the ground.

The Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC)
- In this battle the Roman Legion under Titus Flamininus soundly defeated the Macedonian Army led by Philip V. This battle was important because the successors of Greek leader Alexander the Great had now been defeated. Rome had become the dominant world power.

Third Servile War (73 - 71 BC)
-This war started when 78 gladiators, including their leader Spartacus, escaped and started a rebellion. Soon they had over 120,000 escaped slaves and others traveling with them invading the countryside. They successfully fought back many Roman soldiers until finally an army with a full 8 legions was dispatched to destroy them. The fighting was long and bitter, but eventually Spartacus' army was defeated.

Caesar's Civil War (49 - 45 BC)
-This war is also called the Great Roman Civil War. Julius Caesar's legions fought against the Senate supported legions of Pompey the Great. The war lasted for four years until Caesar finally defeated Pompey and became Dictator of Rome. This signaled the end of the Roman Republic.
The famous moment in this war was when Caesar crossed the Rubicon River. This meant he was going to war against Rome. Today the term "crossing the Rubicon" is still used to say that someone had reached the point of no return and can not go back.

The Battle of Actium (31 BC)
- In this battle Octavian's forces, led by Marcus Agrippa, defeated the combined forces of Roman general Marc Antony and Egyptian Pharaoh Cleopatra VII. As a result Octavian became the sole power in Rome and would soon become Rome's first Emperor. He would change his name to Augustus when he became emperor.
Trade
Ancient Romans had many trade routes. There were sea routes that covered the Mediterranean and Black Seas and numerous roads built by the Romans. Romans imported iron, lead, leather, marble, olive oil, perfumes, purple dye, silk, silver, spices, timber, tin and wine. The main trading partners were in Spain, France, the Middle East and North Africa.
Beliefs
Ancient Rome believe in many gods, which is also called Polytheism. These gods included Mars, Jupiter, and Ceres. Many of their gods was from Greek culture. Romans changed their names and borrowed myths from Greek.
Mars
Jupiter
Ceres
Game Time
Grab a dry erase marker and a board and right your answer on the board. The winners will get a pieces of candy. It will see how you payed a tension
In What country is Rome located in?
A. Spain

B. Greece

C. Italy

D. India
The answer is C
Rome is located in Italy.
Which person (or people) was raised by a wolf and one of them killed the other and founded Rome?
A. Aeneas

B. Romulus and Remus

C. Cincinnatus

D. Hannibal
The Answer is B
Romulus and Remus was raised by a wolf. Romulus later killed Remus and later built the city of Rome.
What did the Roman's culture famed on?
A. Colosseum

B. The Great Wall

C. Olympia

D. The Trojan horse
The answer is A
The Roman culture was famed by Colosseum
A. Siva

B. The Buddha

C. Zeus

D. Mars
Which god did the Romans worship?
The answer is D
The Romans worship a lot of gods one which is Mars.
Key people (continued)
Cicero
- A philosopher and a gifted orator or a public speaker. In his speeches, he called the upper class to work together to make Rome a better place

Julius Caesar
- A great general and Romans admired his bravery in battle. His soldiers respected him for treating them. He conquered nearly all of Gaul in 58 BC to 50 BC. He made an alliance with Pompey. He returned to Rome and made himself dictator for life. The senate didn't like that so, they stabbed him to death.

Pompey
- He was an influential man with alliance with Caesar. He was also allies with the senate and wanted him to become ruler of Rome. Caesar refused and led his troops back to Rome.

Marc Antony
- One of Caesar's former assistant and emerged to take control of Roman politics.

Augustus
- The other of Caesar's assistants and was his adopted son first named Octavian

Diocletian
- The emperor of Rome in the late 200 AD. Convinced that the empire was to big for one person to rule, He ruled the eastern half of and named a co-emperor to rule the west.

Justinian
- A emperor who ruled 527- 565. His passion was to reuniting the Roman Empire. His army conquered Italy and much land around the Mediterranean. His other passions were the law and the church. He made a new legal system called Justinian's Code.

Theodora
- Justinian's wife who is smart and powerful who convinced him to stay and fight. Taking her advice he took over the rest of the region over.
Vocabulary
republic
- people electing leaders to govern them

dictators
- rulers with almost absolute power

plebeians
- common people

patricians
- nobles

magistrates- officials

consuls
- The two most powerful magistrates in Rome

Roman Senate
- Council of wealthy and powerful Romans that advised the city's leaders.

vet
o- prohibit

Latin
- The Romans' language

checks and balances
- methods to balance power

Forum
- Rome's public meeting place

legions
- groups of up to 6000 soldiers

Punic Wars
- a series of wars against Carthage, a city in northern Africa

Pax Romana
- Roman peace

aqueduc
t- is raised channel used to carry water from mountains into cities

Romance language
- They included Italian, French, Spainish, Portuguese, and Romanian

Civil law
- is a legal system based on a written code of laws

corruption
- the decay of people's values

Byzantine Empire
- Historians call the society that developed in the Eastern Roman Empire




Sources
World History Textbook

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
When in Rome.. Do what Romans do
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