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AP Psych Chapters 12 and 13

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Janet Neyer

on 18 February 2016

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Transcript of AP Psych Chapters 12 and 13

Chapter 12
The Psychology of Hunger
Motivation
Motivation
Instinct
Drive
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
inborn behavior
characteristic of a whole species
internal motivation to satisfy a need
Drive-Reduction Theory
We are motivated to reduce the tension created by physical and psychological needs
Need for food and water
Hunger and thirst (the drives)
Eating and drinking (reducing the drives)
Homeostasis
tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level
Incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Chapter 13
Emotion
The Psychology of Sex
The Psychology of Belonging
The hypothalamus controls hunger and thirst. (Remember the four Fs.)
Set Point
the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set
When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
body’s base rate of energy expenditure
Basal Metabolic Rate
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood
provides the major source of energy for body tissues
When its level is low, we feel hunger.
Glucose
Anorexia
List the symptoms
List possible causes
Bulimia
List the symptoms
List possible causes
(Page 478)
The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland which controls sex hormones.
Hormones
Testosterone maintains sex drive in adult males
causes rudimentary genitals of fetus to develop into male structures
acts in brain to promote development of neural systems for male sex drive and inhibit systems for female drive
Absence causes development of female structures.
Stressful events experienced by pregnant rats reduce level of prenatal testosterone.
Human female sex drive may not be consistently affected by hormone cycle at all.
Sexual Orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own gender (homosexual orientation) or the other gender (heterosexual orientation)
Orientation is an early-emerging, ingrained aspect of the self that probably does not change
No consistent relationship between orientation and childhood experiences (e.g., parenting, abuse, sexual experience)
Controversial findings suggest a possible relationship among prenatal stress, androgens, and the development of brain systems that play a role in sexual attraction
The Need to Belong
Satisfies an evolutionary need – chances of survival increase in a group.
We experience our need to belong most when we suffer from loneliness, ostracism, lack of acceptance.
This is one of the reasons that punishments like exile, imprisonment and even a time-out are so effective.
Human examples?
Human examples?
Optimum Arousal
We are motivated to seek the "right" level of arousal - excitement but not too much stress
Human examples?
Tell as dramatic a story as you can for each picture, including:

what has led up to the event shown
what is happening at the moment
what the characters are feeling and thinking
what the outcome of the story was
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
A projective test which measures attitudes, feelings, conflicts and personality characteristics.
Includes a measure for motivation (or need) for:
Achievement
Power
Affiliation (belonging)
Intimacy (love)
Emotion
a response of the whole organism that includes
physiological arousal
expressive behaviors
conscious experience
James-Lange
Schacter Two-Factor
Zajonc
Cannon-Bard
Polygraph (Lie Detector)
- machine commonly used in attempts to detect lies
- measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion
perspiration
cardiovascular
breathing changes
Lie detectors are wrong about one-third of the time.
Is 70% accuracy good?
Assume 5% of 1000 employees are actually guilty of stealing
test all employees
285 will be wrongly accused
What about 95% accuracy?
Assume 1 in 1000 employees are actually guilty
test all employees (including 999 innocents)
50 wrongly declared guilty
1 of 51 testing positive are guilty (~2%)
a lie
Universal Expressions:
Can you name that emotion?
Fear
Happiness
Anger
The Amygdala is a neural key to learned fear.
What matters is what we do with anger:
Do we walk away?
Do we vent?
Do we become aggressive?
Catharsis
(fancy name for venting)
emotional release
catharsis hypothesis: “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges
"People who are happy perceive the world as safer, make decisions more easily...and live healthier and more energized and satisfied lives." (Myers)
Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Subjective Well-Being
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
used along with measures of objective well-being
physical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon
tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” level
brightness of lights
volume of sound
level of income
Like other senses, our happiness is defined by our prior experience.
Relative Deprivation
perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Lazarus
Happiness around the world...
Can we use facial expressions and body language to discover deception?
http://www.cnn.com/video/data/2.0/video/bestoftv/2014/03/09/janine-driver-putin-body-language.cnn.html
Full transcript