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Discourse & History

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Sunil Manghani

on 22 November 2012

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Transcript of Discourse & History

Double Rainbow Guy / Doublicious Presentation Context Re-presentation Intertext Audience Hypertext Object? Subject! “Since the 1970s, feminists have become increasingly interested in television as something more than a bad object, something that offers a series of lures and pleasures, however limited its repertoire of female roles. For its part, over the last twenty-five years, television too has engaged with the themes and tropes of feminism. Indeed, much of the current entertainment output of television features strong women, single mothers, and female friends and lovers--that is, female types who are integral to feminist critique and culture.”

Feminist Television Criticism: A Reader
Charlotte Brunsdon, Julie P. D'Acci, Lynn P. Spigel
Oxford University Press, 1997 “[In film] Arab Muslims are fanatics who believe in a different god, who don't value human life as much as we do, they are intent on destroying us (the west) with their oil or with their terrorism; the men seek to abduct and brutally seduce our women; they are without family and reside in a primitive place (the desert) and behave like primitive beings. The women are subservient -- resembling black crows or we see them portrayed as mute, somewhat exotic harem maidens.” Reel Bad Arabs: How Hollywood Vilifies a People (New York: Olive Branch Press, 2001) See: Mitchell, W.J.T. (1994) 'The violence of Public Art: Do the Right Thing' in Picture Theory. University of Chicago Press, pp.371-396. Bordo, S. (2006) ‘Never Just Pictures’ in Images: A Reader,
ed. by S. Manghani et al. Sage, pp. 78-81. SEE: Gilroy, P. (2006) ‘“Race” and Nation’ in Images: A Reader, ed. by S. Manghani et al. Sage, pp. 76-78. See: Mulvey, L. (2006) ‘Woman as Image (Man as Bearer of the Look’ in Images: A Reader, ed. by S. Manghani et al. Sage, pp. 156-159. Discourse & History A Discourse
of Race... Spike Lee's 'Do The Right Thing' (1989) 1950s... 1960s... 1970s... 1980s... 1990s... 2001... SEE: Lury, C. (2006) ‘United Colors of Diversity’ in Images: A Reader, ed. by S. Manghani et al. Sage, pp. 261-263. French historian and philosopher

best known for his critical studies of various social institutions, (psychiatry, medicine, the human sciences, and the prison system, as well as for his work on the history of human sexuality)

Widely discussed for his work on power, and the relationships among power, knowledge, and discourse. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/foucault/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michel_Foucault Michel Foucault (1926-1984) ‘Discourse … refers to groups of statements which structure the way a thing is thought, and the way we act on the basis of that thinking. In other words, discourse is a particular knowledge about the world which shapes how the world is understood and how things are done in it’

Gillian Rose, Visual Methodologies, p.136 ‘a particular form of language with its own rules and conventions and the institutions within which the discourse is produced and circulated […] in this way, it is possible to speak of a medical discourse … which refers to special language of medicine, the form of knowledge it produces and the professional institutions and social spaces which it occupies’

Lynda Nead in Gillian Rose, Visual Methodologies, p.136 Inter-textuality
Power / Knowledge
Regime of Truth
Visuality as discourse
Sources & Methods Discourse Analysis ‘…power produces knowledge … that power and knowledge directly imply one another; that there is no power relation without the correlative constitution of a field of knowledge, nor any knowledge that does not presuppose and constitute at the same time power relations’
Foucault, Discipline and Punish, p.27 Discourse Analysis 1: ‘attention to the notion of discourse as articulated through various kinds of visual images and verbal texts’ (social modality of the image site)

Discourse Analysis 2: ‘attention to the practices of institutions’

Where to start? …whatever you have to hand, then widen your ‘range of archives and sites’

(See G. Rose - 'Discourse Analysis' in Visual Methodologies) Sources & Methods Power/Knowledge Laura Mulvey – ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’ (1975)‘in a world ordered by sexual imbalance, pleasure in looking has been split between active/male and passive/female’ Visuality: The Male Gaze Male
Equivalent ? Nochlin’s point is that these are not equivalent images because the visuality that constructs the women as object to be seen does not allow the spectator to make sense of a man being shown in the same terms The Beating of Rodney King (1991) L.A. riots, 1992 Spike Lee's 'Inside Man' Rodney King - 18 years on... Feminine
Subject / Subjectivity
Other / Lack / Phallus Keywords Feminist
Discourse Our sense of the past is constructed by the interplay of a very wide range of cultural forces. At the most fundamental level is private memory: what individuals themselves remember, or what has been passed on by relatives and friends. At a somewhat more public level lies a thriving “voluntary sector” of historical production: local history groups, family history societies, WEA classes, history workshops and women’s history groups, and a wide audience for “serious” history books and TV documentaries. The past is a source of commercialised pleasure: in fictional forms from romantic novels to period film and TV drama; in popular documentary, biography, books of photographs; in historical theme parks and “heritage tourism”; in the continual “reference back” to the past in popular styles, songs, advertisements.

Finally, the state itself is actively involved in constructing and reconstructing the past for us, through the school curriculum, university degree courses and research funding bodies, historical museums and ancient monuments, the preservation of old buildings, and the panoply of historically-based national traditions and ceremonies through which the state legitimises itself. In all kinds of public discourse, political or journalistic, the past is continually brought up and put before us, its lessons read and re-read as evidence of progress or decline. Narrating the Thirties: A Decade in the Making
J. Baxendale and C. Pawling (Macmillan, 1996, p.6-7) Can you identify from this extract five ways in which we make sense of the past?
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