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AP Psychology 1: Introduction, History and Perspectives

Introduction to psychology, including the history of psychology, important approaches to psychology, and different career paths in psychology.

Dan Savage

on 2 September 2012

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Transcript of AP Psychology 1: Introduction, History and Perspectives

AP Psychology Introduction: The AP Psych course is intended to be essentially a college level course in introductory psychology.

Our prep course will be a general overview of psychology, and will hopefully help you to be successful on the AP Psychology exam. This course, like a college course, will require you to do some reading and studying on your own, both during and after the course.

Hopefully it will be interesting and fun as well! Enjoy the course! Your Psychology Teacher: B.A. Psychology, May 2006 My Psych courses: Dan Savage General Psychology
Adolescent Psychology
Personality Psychology
Psych. Statistics (2 classes)
Research Methods and Design
Physiological Psych.
Abnormal Psych.
Social Psych.
Cognitive Psychology 1 Human Neuropsychology 3
Research in Human Neuropsych.
Criminal Behaviour
Methods in Social Psych. 1
Evolutionary Psych.
Psychology and Law
Learning and Learners
Exceptional Learners
Assessing Learning in the Classroom
Developing Responsible Learners Psychology What is Psychology? Psychology is the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.

Includes actions, feelings, biological states (like sleeping), problem solving, intelligence, memory, and many more things History of Psychology How do people think, and why do they do the things they do.

(Psychologists also study non-human animals.) People have been thinking about the questions of psychology for a very long time.

Some of these thinkers include Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, and Hobbes.

Turn to page 4 of the Cram Kit.

Dualism Psych is more than just common sense.

It's not just studying mental illness. Who falls in love faster, women or men? Why? Including ancient Egyptians, Chinese, Greeks, Romans... Father of Scientific Psychology: Wilhelm Wundt (1832 - 1920) 1879 - Opened first Psychology lab in history. In Leipzig, Germany. Early Approaches to Psychology: 1. STRUCTURALISM - find detail and structure of our conscious thoughts, and our minds.

introspection - looking inward, observing your own thoughts.

trying to break thoughts down into their smallest pieces.

studied vision, attention, feelings, Important Structuralist Psychologists:

Wilhelm Wundt,
Edward Titchener 2. FUNCTIONALISM - how does behaviour connect to survival and reproduction

connected to Darwinism and Evolution

William James (1842 - 1910) First psych professor in the U.S.

wrote the first psych textbook

had visited Wundt's lab in Germany 3. PSYCHOANALYTIC - unconscious desires and instincts and how they influence our behaviour. Who do you think is the father of scientific psychology? Humans have aggressive and sexual instincts that drive us, but we also have powers of thinking and reason to suppress our basic desires. Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939) techniques to access subconscious mind:

-FREE ASSOCIATION - just say anything and everything that comes into your mind

- HYPNOSIS - altering your state of consciousness to allow acess Modern Psych Perspectives Behaviourism 1920s in the U.S., replacing Functionalism; became VERY strong approach in the U.S. early in the 20th century. (More popular in Europe) first totally scientific approach; others had some science to them, but also included a lot that didn't follow the scientific method. Tried to study only behaviour that could be seen. Not trying to look into the "Black Box" Ivan Pavlov's Dog Studies Influenced John Watson, who strongly believed these ideas could explain all human behaviour. "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years." [Behaviorism (1930), p. 82] (1878 - 1958) Little Albert Experiments:

-aquired fear of rat
-generalization to other furry things

-would NOT be allowed by Ethics Boards today. B.F. Skinner (1904 - 1990) Importance of consequences to behaviour e.g. sheep and wolves Humanism Reaction against behaviourism

More about human choice, free will

People have inner resources for personal development and growth

Used more in applied psych e.g. Hierarchy of Needs Cognitive Psych Another reaction against Behaviourism (esp.Black Box stufF)

Looks at memory, problem solving, decision making, etc.

Very experimental, like behavioural psych Biological / Physiological Psych How the physical body can help explain psychological processes, behaviours, etc.

nerve cells, brain areas, chemical functions in the brain, genetics, etc. Evolutionary Psych How evolutionary history may explain some of our behaviours.

Do you all understand evolution?

Behaviours that make us more likely to survive and have children. Sociocultural Psychology Social Psychology Exploring how others influence our behaviour

Group behaviour, influence of authority, etc. Kitty Genovese

38 bystanders Impact of environment and culture on behaviour

Differences because of income level, culture, sex, Important in Psychology to know the difference between sex and gender Gestalt Whole experience is more than the sum of its parts

You can't just divide things into smaller pieces to understand them

Mostly related to sensory perception Jobs in Psych Applied vs. Academic counselling, psychiatry research, teaching Many Subfields:

Experimental, Developmental, Biopsychological, Personality psychologist, Social, Cognitive, Industrial / Organizational (I/O)

Behaviour in the workplace, productivity, leadership styles, reducing absenteeism, etc Consumer Psych.

consumer behaviour, advertising, product/service design, etc Criminal / Forensic Psych

Psych. related to crime and the criminal justice system. including studying ciminal behaviour, but also determining competency to stand trial, accuracy of witnesses, fingerprint matching, etc. Health Psych

ways to promote health, coping with stress, personality traits and chances of health problems Educational Psych

how people learn, teacher behaviour, best teaching methods, etc.

Jobs: School Psychologist, Teacher, Sports Psych.

Work with athletes, injury recovery, performance improving techniques, psych and social psych influences on athletic performance Psychiatrist

Medical Doctor (MD) with extra mental illness training. Can prescribe meds. Clinical or Counselling Psychologists

helping people with their problems. Could be mental health issues, or just normal life troubles that people need help with (The Core) This Unit:

1. What is Psych?
2. History of Psych
3. Perspectives in Psych
4. Jobs in Psych Law of Pragnanz We experience perceptions in ordered, simple, symmetric ways Eclectic Approach

Use whatever is best for each situation Developmental Psych

Study life's changes over the lifespan. Different stages of life, how and why people at different stages are different or the same, etc. Abnormal Psych

Studying abnormal behaviour or mental processes that lead to problems in people's lives. Things like depression, schizophrenia, autism, etc. Discuss Poss. Textbook...

Structure of the class.

Attendance is key.
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