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World History I - French and Haitian Revolutions
Transcript of World History I - French and Haitian Revolutions
World History I
Power rested with aristocrats
Revolution – relatively rapid and fundamental transformation of the basic structures of society, politics, and economics, usually accompanied by violence
What challenges this belief?
Backed militarily, by heredity, divinely, by law
Why? There are many more commoners than aristocrats so what’s up?
Liked the ideas of the Enlightenment era
Commoners - middle class, peasants
First and second estates - shared same interests
Nobility - class with high birth or rank
Clergy – ordained officials of the church
4. Three Estates – Three social classes
3. 1/3 in poverty
2. Bad Harvests – 1787/88
1. Unfair taxes
Causes of the Revolution
Marie Antoinette – Queen of France
only man though? really? yes... really?
Declaration of the Rights of Man – document that defined human rights as universal
Bastille – fortress and prison in Paris
July 14, 1789 - Storming of the Bastille
Louis XVI prepares forces
Tennis Court Oath – form a constitution for a new government
Third Estate forms the National Assembly
Estates-General – meeting of reps from each estate
Radicalism - political and social philosophy of those who favor rapid, revolutionary change in government and society (sometimes violently)
Liberalism - political and social philosophy that favors social progress by reform and by changing laws rather than by revolution
Conservatism - political, social philosophy promoting maintaining traditional institutions and supporting slow, gradual change
3. Economy still hurting
2. Foreign relations terrible
1. Disagreement among revolutionaries
Problems still exist
Women storm Versailles
16,000 by guillotine
The Reign of Terror - execution, harassment of suspected dissidents
"Let terror be the order of the day!
Maximillien Robespierre – becomes dominant voice of the Committee of Public Safety
Committee of Public Safety – protect France from domestic, foreign threats
Long live the Republic
bye bye King Louis XVI
Jacobins (The Mountain) win
Girondins - liberal party; king alive
Jacobins - radical party; king dead
National Convention, new constitution
4. attacks every major power near France
3. Napoleonic Code - code of law meant to ensure equal rights for men (not women)
2. confirmed religious freedom
1. holds absolute power
"I am the Revolution"
consul then emperor in 1804
coup d'etat - sudden overthrow of the government
Napoleon chosen as member
The Directory - executive branch of government consisting of five people
Robespierre guillotined - too radical now?
Olympe de Gouge
3. French monarchy restored
2. "Encirclement of France" - countries around France made stronger
1. France lost most new territories
Congress of Vienna, 1814
Exiled to St. Helena
Defeated at Waterloo, 1815
Exiled to Elba
Napoleon takes 600,000 troops
1812, Russia out of alliance
by 1810 control of western Europe
good or bad?
nationalism - strong feelings about your country
nation - territory based on common language, customs, culture, history
A nation emerges…
A revolution... wow.
By 1914, France was on shaky ground until 1977
Shaky republic emerges in 1871
3. Scientific Revolution
King Louis XVI – King of France
Olympe de Gouges
French, Spanish and English invade and occupy
Dictatorship – government with ruler who holds total power and usually obtained power by force
Haiti falls into a cycle of dictatorship
country was in ruins, uneducated
US, Great Britain and Spain did not offer help
First independent nation in Latin America
January 1, 1804 - Haiti's Independence day
General Jean-Jacques Dessalines and the French Flag
Death of Toussaint
Toussaint wants to bring plantation system back... why do you think?
Toussaint back to plantation
overwhelming force sent by Napoleon
Of Toussaint’s armies, one chronicler said, “He disappears—he has flown– as if by magic. Now he reappears again where he is least expected. No one knows where his army is or what it subsists on… on the other, he seems perfectly informed concerning everything that goes on in the enemy camp.”
Toussaint L'Ouverture lightening attacks
Whites are enraged
French National Assembly creates 6 seats for colonies and declare gens de coleur as equals
French Declaration of the Rights of Man - document declaring "men are born and remain free and equal in rights"
Vodun - animistic religion, attempt to influence course of events through appeals to symbols and deities
Gens de coleur
black-market develops with the US
exclusif - unbalanced trade policy between France and Saint-Domingue
August 14, 1791 Dutty Boukman leads a vodun service
Sugar colony that accounted for 1/3 of all French foreign trade
all imports and exports controlled by France
Tiny... why important?
black market - illegal economic activity
Maroons - escaped slave population living in the mountains
uprisings all over Saint Domingue
Toussaint L'Ouverture - the primary leader of the Haitian Revolution
Plantation system - economy which is based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few staple products grown on large farms
6. Instituted a military dictatorship
5. Wanted to keep plantation system
4. Main goal was achieved – governor
3. Ousted all genuine French authority
2. Oversaw the retreat of Spain
1. Drove the British mostly out
Toussaint achievements and rule: