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Depth of Knowledge
Transcript of Depth of Knowledge
by: Norman Webb
What comes after the verb is more important than the verb itself.
“Analyze this sentence to decide if the commas have been used correctly” does not meet the criteria for high cognitive processing.”
Maria I. Vega
Why Depth Of Knowledge?
Focuses on complexity of content standards in order to successfully complete an assessment or task.
The outcome (product) is the focus of the depth of understanding.
Mechanism to ensure that the intent of the standard and the level of student demonstration required by that standard matches the assessment items
DOK is not...
a taxonomy (Bloom's)
about using "verbs"
the same as difficulty
DOK and Verbs
The Depth of Knowledge is NOT determined by the verb (Bloom’s Taxonomy), but by the context in which the verb is used and the depth of thinking required.
DOK Level 1: Describe the each pig in the story "The Three Little Pigs."
DOK Level 2: Describe how the pigs are alike and different in the story, "The Three Little PIgs."
DOK Level 3: Describe your analysis of the literary elements in the story, "The Three Little Pigs."
DOK is about complexity
Webb's 4 levels of
Difficulty is a reference to how many students answer a question correctly.
Level 1: Recall and Reproduction
Level 2: Skills & Concepts
Level 3: Strategic Thinking
Level 4: Extended Thinking
DOK Level 1
Answering a Level 1 item can involve following a simple, well-known procedure or formula.
Requires recall of information, such as a fact, definition, term, or performance of a simple process or procedure
DOK 1 Examples:
Describe physical features of places
Determine the perimeter or area of rectangles given a drawing or labels
List animals that survive by eating other animals
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) requires assessments to “measure the depth and breadth of the state academic content standards for a given grade level”.
To ensure that the teachers are teaching to a level that will promote student achievement.
DOK is about intended outcome, not difficulty.
The intended student learning outcome determines the DOK level.
Every objective in the content areas frameworks has been assigned a DOK level.
Instruction and classroom assessments must reflect the DOK level of the objective or intended learning outcome.
Identify basic rules for participating in simple games and activities
DOK 3 Examples:
Compare consumer actions and analyze how these actions impact the environment
Analyze or evaluate the effectiveness of literary elements (e.g., characterization, setting, point of view, conflict and resolution, plot structures)
Solve a multiple-step problem and provide support with a mathematical explanation that justifies the answer
DOK 4 Examples:
Gather, analyze, organize, and interpret information from multiple (print and non print) sources to draft a reasoned report
Analyzing author’s craft (e.g., style, bias, literary techniques, point of view)
DOK 2 Examples:
Identify and summarize the major events, problems, solutions, conflicts in literary text.
Explain the cause-effect of historical events
Predict a logical outcome based on information in a reading selection
So...what is the most significant factor in student learning?
“Teachers must be the primary driving force behind change. They are best positioned to understand the problems that students face and to generate possible solutions.”
Level 2 requires students to compare or contrast people, places, events and concepts; convert information from one form to another; classify or sort item items into meaningful categories, etc.
Items demand a short term use of
higher order thinking process, such as
analysis and evaluation, to solve real world.
problems with predictable outcomes.
Stating ones reasoning is a key marker of tasks that fall into this category.
This level demands extended use of higher order thinking processes such as synthesis, reflection, assessment and adjustment of plans over time.