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Transcript of Drinking age
Is it a drug
Laws & Legislation
Statistics on Drinking
Alcohol & Crime - Teenagers
Polydrug use & transitions Comparison to USA
References “In a chemical sense, alcohol refers to any organic chemical containing one or more hydroxyl group molecules” (Bennett & Holloway, 2005, p. 3) 2 x alcohol compositions: - Ethanol
Spirits - Methanol
Solvents (Bennett & Holloway, 2005, p. 3) Is Alcohol a Drug? “A drug is applied to a substance that can modify one or more of the functions of a living organism, more specifically the cognitive and nervous system processes” (Bennett & Holloway, 2005, p. 2) Alcohol affects the Central Nervous System which classifies it as a drug Alcohol Altercations to the Brain & Body - Alcohol Depresses the Central Nervous System
- Alcohol triggers your body to release endorphins into the system which alter emotions
- “Alcohol is psychoactive (mind altering) chemical” (Abadinsky, 2013, p. 57) Why is it bad? “From the age of 12 or 13 through to the early twenties the brain is in a state of intense development, molding and hardwiring in readiness for the challenges of adulthood” (DrinkWise Australia, 2012, p. 1) - Frontal lobe and critical receptors are being formed
- Alcohol disrupts brain development.
- Brains not reaching full capacity (DrinkWise Australia, 2012) Medical Problems Glial cells constitute one of the most common cell types in the brain. They play critical roles in central nervous system (CNS) development. (Guerri & Renau-Piqueras, 1997) “Astrocytes (Astroglia) are the most numerous and diverse neuroglial cells in the CNS” (Network Glia, n.d., p. 1) Evidence demonstrates that glial cells are profoundly affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, suggesting that alterations in these cells may participate in CNS abnormalities associated with ethanol-inducement (Guerri & Renau-Piqueras, 1997) Laws & Legislation Liquor Act 1992 “a person may not sell liquor to a minor” Section 155A - Licensing regulations
- Obligations Statistics on Consumption - The average Australian starts drinking alcohol at 15.5 years - More than a quarter of our 14-19 year olds are underage drinking and binge drinking at least once a month (DrinkWise Australia, 2012) - "38.4% of teenagers had consumed at least a full serve of alcohol in the last 12 months" (Office of Gaming and Liquor Regulation, 2011, p. 1) Alcohol and Crime “Alcohol use can be linked to crime directly through various alcohol offences, including drink driving offences, drunken disorderly offences and public nuisance offences involving alcohol” (Bennett & Holloway, 2005, p. 12) - Fast tracked way into the criminal justice system + = PolyDrug use and Gateway Drugs “The taking of more than one drug type is common amongst users of other drugs and is an increasing trend” British Medical Association, 1997, p. 61) - Easily transitioned or accompanied by another drug
- Can be taken enhance other drug use (neurological effects) USA Comparison “The proportion people age 12 through 17 who have consumed any alcohol during the previous month has dropped from 50% in 1979 to 14.7% in 2009” (Hanson, 2012, p. 1) Police-Ability ~~Scenario ~~ # 1 # 2 Age: 17
Drinking status: Social drinker
- Not fussed by clubbing Age: 19
Drinking status: Heavy drinker
- Loves clubbing Legal drinking age changes to 21... “Alcohol consumption is now occurring earlier in adolescence and many teenagers’ exhibit high-risk drinking patterns” Continued... (Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Hamilton, King, & Ritter, 2004, p. 118) Alcoholic Culture Drinking events in Australia: Schoolies
Big Day Out
Gold Coast 600 Continued... “Drink heavily and quickly in order to experience being drunk” (Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Hamilton, King, & Ritter, 2004, p. 118) "In 2011-12, 82.4% of Australians aged 18 years and over had consumed alcohol in the past year" (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012, p. 1) Male populace: 87.6%
Female populace: 77.3% AUSTRALIA LOVES THE DRINK! Availability - 182.0 million litres of pure alcohol in 2010-2011
- The makeup of this includes:
RTD's: 7.0% (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012, p. 1) (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2012, p. 1) Drinking Influences “49% of Australian adults believe that underage drinking under parental supervision in the home is acceptable” (Bupa, n.d., p. 1) Continued... "52.6% of teenagers (12-17 years) said they had been offered or had the opportunity to drink alcohol in the last 12 months" Office of Gaming and Liquor Regulation, 2011, p. 1) (Where do i get it?) Where did underage drinkers get their alcohol? - 12-15 year-olds:
40.2% from friends and acquaintances
30.4% Alcohol from the parents
29.4% unknown (not stated) Results Where did they drink? - 16-17 year-olds:
52.1% from friends and acquaintances
23.3% Alcohol from the parents
24.6% unknown (not stated) • 49.2% usually drank at friends' houses
• 72.4% usually drank at private parties 37.1% usually drank at friends' houses
59.2% usually drank at private parties Office of Gaming and Liquor Regulation, 2011, p. 1) Recommendations - Alter the viewpoint of Alcohol
- Education (Schools)
- Parental and Teenager awareness Recommendations National Alcohol Strategy (Australian Government, 2013) "The National Alcohol Strategy is a plan for action developed through collaboration between Australian governments, non-government and industry partners and the broader community. It outlines priority areas for coordinated action to develop drinking cultures that support a reduction in alcohol-related harm in Australia" Discussion Would you change the drinking age in Australia?
Why or Why not? Bibliography Abadinsky, H. (2013). Drug use and abuse: A comprehensive introduction (8th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth.
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012, May 3). 4307.0.55.001 - Apparent Consumption of Alcohol, Australia, 2010-11. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/4307.0.55.001Main%20Features72010-11?opendocument&tabname=Summary&prodno=4307.0.55.001&issue=2010-11&num=&view=
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012, May 3). 4307.0.55.001 - Apparent Consumption of Alcohol, Australia, 2010-11. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4307.0.55.001main+features32010-11
Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012, October 29). 4364.0.55.001 - Australian Health Survey: First Results, 2011-12. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/D522399EBE2DAB46CA257AA30014BE96?opendocument
Australian Government (2013). National Drug Strategy - National Drug Strategy. Retrieved February 13, 2013, from http://www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/
Bennett, T., & Holloway, K. (2005). Understanding drugs, alcohol and crime. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
British Medical Association. (1997). The misuse of drugs. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic.
Bupa (n.d.). The risks of underage drinking - Bupa. Health Insurance - Health Cover - Health Fund - Bupa. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.bupa.com.au/health-and-wellness/health-information/the-risks-of-underage-drinking#statistics
DrinkWise Australia (2012). Underage Drinking. Alcohol Health Facts from DrinkWise Australia. DrinkWise Australia - Alcohol and Kids Advice for Parents - Facts about Alcohol -. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.drinkwise.org.au/you-alcohol/alcohol-and-your-health/kids-and-alcohol-don%E2%80%99t-mix/
Guerri, C., & Renau-Piqueras, J. (1997). Alcohol, Astroglia, and Brain Development. Molet ular Neurobadogy, 15(1), 65-81. ISBN:0893-7648
Hanson, D. (2012). Alcoholic Beverage Consumption in the U.S.: Patterns and Trends. WWW2 Webserver. Retrieved January 27, 2012, from http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/Controversies/1116895242.html
Inciardi, J. (1999). The drug legalization debate (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Liquor Act 1992
Network Glia (n.d.). Astrocytes | Network Glia. Home | Network Glia. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.networkglia.eu/en/astrocytes
Office of Gaming and Liquor Regulation (2011). Statistics – alcohol and minors (OLGR). OLGR. Retrieved February 9, 2013, from http://www.olgr.qld.gov.au/consumers/underageDrinking/Statistics_Alcohol_and_minors/index.shtml
Hamilton, M., King, T., Ritter, A., & Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre. (2004). In Drug use in Australia: Preventing harm (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic: Oxford University Press. “The public needs to understand the connection between an action required and an outcome desired” (Inciardi, 1999, p. 155) “regular use of moderate daily amounts of alcohol can produce psychological dependence” (Abadinsky, 2013, p. 58) Drug Use Continuum Non-use (Abadinsky, 2013, p. 6)