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Chemical Warfare

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Rachel Linton

on 4 May 2015

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Transcript of Chemical Warfare

Using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
The History of Chemical Warfare
Industrial Era
Later, during the American Civil War, New York school teacher John Doughty proposed the offensive use of chlorine gas, delivered by filling a 10-inch artillery shell with two to three quarts of liquid chlorine, which could produce many cubic feet of chlorine gas.
World War I
The French were the first to use chemical weapons during the First World War, using the tear gases ethyl bromoacetate and chloroacetone.
A total 50,965 tons of pulmonary, lachrymatory, and vesicant agents were deployed by both sides of the conflict, including chlorine, phosgene, and mustard gas. Official figures declare about 1.3 million casualties directly caused by chemical warfare agents during the course of the war.
Interwar Years
In 1919, the Royal Air Force dropped arsenic gas on Bolshevik troops during the British intervention in the Russian Civil War.
In 1935, Fascist Italy used mustard gas during the invasion of Ethiopia in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
Ancient Times
Chemical weapons have been used for millennia in the form of poisoned spears and arrows.
In Ancient times it was used in Greece, India, and China.
For example, the "Laws of Manu," a Hindu treatise on statecraft forbid the use of poison and fire arrows, but advised poisoning food and water.
Early Modern Era
In more modern eras, Leonardo da Vinci proposed the use of a powder of sulfide, arsenic and verdigris in the 15th century.
World War II
Despite the 1899 Hague Declaration IV, which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases, a resolution was adopted against Japan by the League of Nations on May 14, 1938.
The Imperial Japanese Army frequently used chemical weapons. For example, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the Battle of Wuhan from August to October 1938.
United States
In 1952, the U.S. Army patented a process for the "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", publishing a method of producing this powerful toxin.
By 1961 the U.S. was producing large amounts of VX and performing its own nerve agent research.
In 2002, the Pentagon admitted for the first time that some of tests used real chemical and biological weapons, not just harmless stimulants. Specifically under Project SHAD, 37 secret tests were conducted in California, Alaska, Florida, Hawaii, Maryland and Utah.
Current Events
Iranian Civilians
Detecting Chemical Weapons Research
Destruction of Chemical Warfare
Chemicals stay lethal for quite a while.
Wind can easily change and blow it back on your troops.
There are no real antidotes that you can take ahead of time
Chemical Warfare
Pros And Cons of Chemical Warfare
Pros
Cons
Easy to make
Cheap
Easy to store
Easy to use
Sources
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_warfare
http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro chemicalwarfare.html#a0
http://www.brightsurf.com/search/r-a/Chemical_Warfare/1/Chemical_Warfare_current_events_and_news.html
http://www.un.org/disarmament/WMD/Chemical/
Nerve Agents
Disables enzymes responsible for transmitting nerve impulses.
Initial effects of organophosphorus agents occur within 1-10 minutes of exposure
Death
Blister Agents
Skin blisters
Acute mortality low
Death can occur from complications after lung injury.
Blood Agents
Rapidly acting
Seizures
Respiratory failure
Cardiac arrest
Pulmonary Agents
Liquids dispersed in gas form
Damage the respiratory tract
Classes of Chemical Agents
Tabun
Sabrin
Soman
GF
Nitrogen mustards
Sulfur mustards
Cyanogen chloride
Hydrogen cyanide
Chlorine
Chloropicrin
Diphosgene
Full transcript