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Transcript of Chemical Warfare
The History of Chemical Warfare
Later, during the American Civil War, New York school teacher John Doughty proposed the offensive use of chlorine gas, delivered by filling a 10-inch artillery shell with two to three quarts of liquid chlorine, which could produce many cubic feet of chlorine gas.
World War I
The French were the first to use chemical weapons during the First World War, using the tear gases ethyl bromoacetate and chloroacetone.
A total 50,965 tons of pulmonary, lachrymatory, and vesicant agents were deployed by both sides of the conflict, including chlorine, phosgene, and mustard gas. Official figures declare about 1.3 million casualties directly caused by chemical warfare agents during the course of the war.
In 1919, the Royal Air Force dropped arsenic gas on Bolshevik troops during the British intervention in the Russian Civil War.
In 1935, Fascist Italy used mustard gas during the invasion of Ethiopia in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
Chemical weapons have been used for millennia in the form of poisoned spears and arrows.
In Ancient times it was used in Greece, India, and China.
For example, the "Laws of Manu," a Hindu treatise on statecraft forbid the use of poison and fire arrows, but advised poisoning food and water.
Early Modern Era
In more modern eras, Leonardo da Vinci proposed the use of a powder of sulfide, arsenic and verdigris in the 15th century.
World War II
Despite the 1899 Hague Declaration IV, which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases, a resolution was adopted against Japan by the League of Nations on May 14, 1938.
The Imperial Japanese Army frequently used chemical weapons. For example, the Emperor authorized the use of toxic gas on 375 separate occasions during the Battle of Wuhan from August to October 1938.
In 1952, the U.S. Army patented a process for the "Preparation of Toxic Ricin", publishing a method of producing this powerful toxin.
By 1961 the U.S. was producing large amounts of VX and performing its own nerve agent research.
In 2002, the Pentagon admitted for the first time that some of tests used real chemical and biological weapons, not just harmless stimulants. Specifically under Project SHAD, 37 secret tests were conducted in California, Alaska, Florida, Hawaii, Maryland and Utah.
Detecting Chemical Weapons Research
Destruction of Chemical Warfare
Chemicals stay lethal for quite a while.
Wind can easily change and blow it back on your troops.
There are no real antidotes that you can take ahead of time
Pros And Cons of Chemical Warfare
Easy to make
Easy to store
Easy to use
Disables enzymes responsible for transmitting nerve impulses.
Initial effects of organophosphorus agents occur within 1-10 minutes of exposure
Acute mortality low
Death can occur from complications after lung injury.
Liquids dispersed in gas form
Damage the respiratory tract
Classes of Chemical Agents