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Transcript of Jean Watson
The 10 Carative Factors
9. Assistance with the gratification of human needs
1. Formation of a humanistic- altruistic system of values.
5. The promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings
8. Provision for a supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical, sociocultural, and spiritual environment
3. Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others
10. Allowance for existential-phenomenological forces
Theory of Caring
Key concepts of Watson's model are the phenomenal field - which is the totality of past, present, and future influences on each human being - and carative factors
Enhances humanity by helping a person find meaning in illness, suffering, pain, & existence.
Caring is more than a technique, it is a moral ideal.
4 major concepts:
Human Beings, Health, Environment/Society, Nursing
Nurses use Watson's theory to measure caring, behaviors, attitudes, and efficacy.
Born in West Virginia during the 1940s
Educated: BSN, University of Colorado, 1964, MS, University of Colorado, 1966, PhD, University of Colorado, 1973
Undergraduate and graduate degrees in nursing and psychiatric-mental health nursing and PhD in educational psychology and counseling.
In 1988, her theory was published in “nursing: human science and human care”.
Founder and Director of the non-profit foundation: Watson Caring Science Institute.
Author/co-author of over 18 books on caring
4. The development of a helping-trust relationship
7. Promotion of
Carative Factor #4:
Strongest tool we have as nurses is communication, which establishes rapport and caring.
Characteristics needed to in the helping-trust relationship are:
Congruence: Care that fits the people's valued life patterns and set of meanings, which is generated from the people themselves, rather than based on predetermined criteria.
Empathy: Understanding, relating to, and being thoughtful of what the patient is going through
Warmth: showing compassion
Communication includes verbal and nonverbal listening in a manner which connotes empathetic understanding.
Carative Factor #1
Begins with parental values shared during development
Values evolve with one's life experiences and with exposure to the humanities
As nurses, it is necessary to nurture our own maturation in order to promote altruism towards others
Carative Factor #8:
Provision for a supportive, protective and /or corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural and spiritual environment
Creating a healing environments at all levels (physical as well as non-physical):
Eternal and internal variables are items that the nurse can manipulate to provide support and protection for a person's mental and physical well-being
External and internal environments are dependent on one another
When a nurse provides comfort, privacy, and safety for their patient is cared for
The patient should feel as if their environment is healing
Practice loving kindness and embrace the development of a value system
The patient should be able to easily feel and observe loving-kindness from the facility staff
Carative Factor #2
Faith - Hope
Honor others and instill in them a sense of faith and hope
Promotes health by improving harmony of the mind, body, and soul
Provides a sense of meaning and well-being to the patient
Carative Factor #9:
Assistance with the gratification of human needs
Ordering of Needs:
Biophysical needs: lower order needs
Psychophysical needs: lower order needs
Psychosocial needs: higher order needs
Each of these needs are equally important for quality nursing and the promotion of optimal health
All of these needs need to be attended and valued
The patient should feel as if they can talk openly about their feelings and needs
The patient should feel that their belief system is respected and supported as part of their healing process.
Carative Factor #3
Sensitivity to Self & Others
Interact in a genuine and sensitive way
Carative Factor #5:
Promotion & Acceptance of Feelings
“Feelings alter thoughts and behavior, and they need to be considered and allowed for in a caring relationship." - Jean Watson
Awareness of feelings aids in the understand of the behavior the feelings trigger.
For example: If a patient is being stand-offish, he could be feeling vulnerable and scared about an operation or treatment.
Carative Factor #10:
Allowance for existential-phenomenological forces
Phenomenology is a way of understanding people from the way things appear to them, from their point of view
Existential psychology is the study of human existence using phenomenological analysis
This allows the nurse to form harmony with the person holistically while at the same time attending to the hierarchical ordering of needs.
The nurse assist the person to find the strength to confront life or death
The patient should feel as if they can share their beliefs with the health care team
Nurture spiritual beliefs and practices
Cultivate emotional discussion as it presents itself
Promote health by forming authentic person-to-person relationships to encourage growth and self-actualization
The patient should feel respected in their individuality and encouraged to invest in self-care
Carative Factor #6:
Scientific Problem-Solving Method for Decision Making
The scientific problem-solving method is the only method that allows for control and prediction, while allowing for self-correction at the same time.
The science of caring should not be always neutral and objective. There must also be compassion.
This allows for some creative problem-solving as well. Patients are all different and require a multitude of ways of caring whether it be religion or daily life patterns.
Mind and Spirit must be cared for as well as the Body.
Brings caring & love into a philosophy and ethic of Caring Science
Caring is related to love of humanity and compassionate service to others
Healing and caring are achieved through genuine nurse-patient relationships
The Seven Assumptions of the Carative Process
1. Caring can be effectively demonstrated and practiced only interpersonally.
2. Caring consists of carative factors that result in the satisfaction of certain human needs.
3. Effective caring promotes health and individual or family growth.
4. Caring responses accept person not only as he or she is now but as what he or she may become.
5. A caring environment is one that offers the development of potential while allowing the person to choose the best action for himself or herself at a given point in time.
6. Caring is more “ healthogenic” than is curing. A science of caring is complementary to the science of curing.
7. The practice of caring is central to nursing.
Purpose of Nursing:
To help human beings gain greater harmony within the mind, body, and soul
DiNapoli, P., Nelson, J., Turkel, M., & Watson, J. (2010). Measuring the caritas processes:
Caring Factor Survey. International Journal For Human Caring, 14(3), 16-21.
Dr. Jean Watson (2013). Retrieved September 20, 2013. from
Image retrieved on September 20, 2013 from http://www.lasalle.edu/univcomm/2011/watson.html
Jean Watson's Philosophy of Nursing. (2012). Retrieved September 20, 2013, from
Watson, J. (2002). The nurse theorists: 21st-century updates--Jean Watson. Interview
by Jacqueline Fawcett. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15(3), 214-219.
Watson, J. (2003). The theory of human caring. Retrieved from
Carative Factor #7:
Promotion of Interperonsal Teaching-Learning
Engaging in genuine teaching-learning experience that attends to unity of being and attempting to stay within other's frame of reference
The caring nurse must focus both on the learning and teaching processes equally
A nurse who is able to understand a person's perception of situations can assist to prepare a cognitive plan
The patient should feel as if they are taught in a way which they can understand