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Unit 10: World War I

U.S. History
by

Michele Goostree

on 20 February 2017

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Transcript of Unit 10: World War I

Recap #2: Reasons "We" Enter War
German invasion of Belgium
German U-boat attacks
Sinking of Lusitania [or propaganda that follows...?]
From Neutrality to War:
America and World War I
Recap #1: War in Europe begins August 1914
Why?
What is THE trigger?
How did nationalism and militarism cause World War I?
Wilson Urges Neutrality
"...be impartial in thought and action."
Don't set Americans against Americans ("melting pot")
America not directly threatened
Isolationism
War profiteering?
Divided Loyalties
1/3 Americans were foreign-born
Many from Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ireland: Central Powers
National Defense Act (1916)
Expanded size of Army
Naval Construction Act (1916)
Ordered building of warships
Zimmerman Note:
Germany proposed alliance with Mexico
[telegram intercepted by the British]
German and British blockades stop flow of American goods to Europe
Tipping Points to War...
Mobilization for War
Building an Army
Selective Service Act (1917) - Authorized the draft
24 million registered for draft; 2.8 million drafted, 4 million volunteered
Constructing Wartime Economy

Government Regulated:
food production
coal and petroleum distribution
railroad use
All production changed to fit wartime needs
Opposition to War
Resistance to Draft
*conscientious objectors*
Women's Peace Party
*women who opposed the war*
Espionage Act (1917)
Ban of treasonable newspapers, magazines, or printed materials in mail.
Sedition Act (1918)
Unlawful to use "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about American form of government.
Prejudice Against German Americans
America Gives the Allies an Advantage
Naval convoys protect shipping lanes
General John J. Pershing, Commander of American Forces
Turned millions of untrained men into effective fighting force
American Expeditionary Forces
AKA: "Doughboys"
Defensive fights with French v. Germans
Quick learners on the battlefield
369th Infantry Regiment
(aka "Harlem Hellfighters")
Received the French Crosses for bravery
Wilson's "14 Points"
Purpose: Outline America's war goals
"Versailles Treaty"
Peace treaty agreed on at Paris Peace Talks
14 Points
Versailles Treaty
Important Details of...
v.
"Peace without victory"
(ideals, not greed or revenge)
Great Britain and France make
Germany pay reparations
Open Diplomacy
Freedom of seas and free trade
Move toward ending colonialism
Self-determination
League of Nations
~world organization where countries gather peacefully to resolve their quarrels
Protect colonialism and punish Germany
~demanded Alcace-Lorraine and German colonies
Original forms of government retained
~People cannot choose
Dismissed idea
Dismissed idea
Granted due to Wilson's refusal to compromise
Reparations (def.)

Repayment in money, material, labor, etc.

Paid by "losing" country to "winning" country for loss suffered as a result of war.
Many immigrants still loyal to homeland
Many immigrants have relatives in Europe
Jewish Americans escaped Tsarist regimes in Russia; hope for Russia's defeat
Most Americans: Britain and France
Who do immigrants support?
Severe penalties for disloyal or treasonous activities
Interfering with wartime activities was a crime
Stopped teaching German in schools
Discontinued playing Beethoven and Brahms on radio
German Americans forced to prove loyalty
Renamed German measles "liberty measles"
Germans portrayed in movies as cruel enemy
Some German Americans beaten or killed over heritage
U.S. Forces specialized in counterattacks - mostly in France against Germany
Terms of "Peace"?
vs.
A Few Final Things to Consider About WWI
"Total War"
Use of ALL human and natural resources
How did the Triple Entente Win?
Germany was fighting a 2-Front War
~Winning on the Eastern Front; Russia leaves 1917
Germans lacked power to win Western Front
(capture of Paris = fail)

U.S. enters war April 1917 (full force 1918)
Europe
Post-WWI

Infrastructure destroyed
Millions of casualties, millions wounded
European treasury broke
America
Post-WWI

Physically untouched
Financial industrial superpower
Selective Service "Lottery"
What does "open diplomacy" mean?
No secret alliance treaties between powers
Reduce weapons
Why is the idea dismissed?
Disarmament is dangerous
What is "Self-Determination"?
Allow people to govern themselves
One nation shouldn't govern another
Why was idea dismissed?
Revenge for what T.A. did during WWI
America's Involvement Recap in 13 Minutes.

What did Mrs. Goostree miss?
Source:
Khan, Sal. "Empires Before World War I." Khan Academy. Published 14 March 2013. Accessed 23 February 2016 (YouTube).
Divided Loyalties
https://prezi.com/mh5x2bcmsiza/trench-warfare/
Notes on Trench Warfare at this link!
Causes of World War I
Cause #1: "isms"
"Nationalism"
Nationalism and WWI History. History Channel. 8 July 2014. YouTube
"Militarism"
"World War I: The Arms Race," BBC Program (Unknown). Alpha History. 14 January 2015. YouTube.
Cause #2:
Alliances Between European Countries
"Imperialism"
"Imperialism." Causes of World War I. 25 March 2014. YouTube.
Leaders acted restlessly
Alliances pulled other countries into war
Cause #3
Assassination of Austria-Hungarian Duke Franz Ferdinand
(and his wife)
Killed by Serbian youth in the Black Hand
Bosnia should be under their control instead of Austria-Hungary
Need an easy way to remember the MAIN causes of World War I?
M
A
I
N
ilitary
lliances
mperialism
ationalism
Assassination is more of a spark, not the dynamite.
Alliances
Triple Alliance
(Central Powers)
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Italy
Triple Entente
(Allied Powers)
Great Britain
France
Russia
{Serbia}
How was the nature of warfare changed?
TECHNOLOGY!
Tanks, machine guns, gas, airplanes, communications
Open Google Classroom to complete section 1 notes (please).
Full transcript