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Themes of AP World History

By: Maggie Welch
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maggie welch

on 8 May 2015

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Transcript of Themes of AP World History

Themes of AP World History
By: Maggie Welch
Demography and disease
Migration
Patterns of settlement
Technology
Theme 1: Interaction Between Humans and the Environment
Theme 2: Development and Interaction of Cultures
Agricultural and pastoral production
Trade and commerce
Labor systems
Industrialization
Capitalism and Socialism
Theme 4: Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems
Gender roles and relations
Family and kinship
Racial and ethnic constructions
Social and economic classes
Theme 5: Development and Transformation of Social Structures
Color Key
2.5 million-1000 B.C.
1000 B.C.-500 A.D.
500 A.D.-1450 A.D.
1450 A.D.- 1750 A.D.
1750 A.D.-1914 A.D.
1914 A.D.-Present
Syphilis
~The first large outbreak of syphilis happened in Europe in 15th century. At this time, many people in all European countries were infected. Children were also being born with the disease. Adults with syphilis were taken outside of cities and banned.
~Is known to be a part of the Columbian Exchange. (From the Americas to Europe)
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~Upon the arrival of Europeans in Latin America, the Native Americans were exposed to this disease, resulting in almost 50% of the natives dying.
~ Small pox has existed far back as 1500 B.C.
The Bubonic Plague
~This disease resulted in about 1/3 of Europe’s population to die.
~ In places other than Europe, the plague contributed to the fall of the Yuan Dynasty.
The Bantu Migration
~The Bantu first originated around the Benue-Cross rivers area in southeastern Nigeria and spread over Africa to the Zambia area.
~ In the 1st millennium BC, they began a more rapid second phase of expansion beyond the forests into southern and eastern Africa, and again in the 1st millennium as new agricultural techniques and plants were developed in Zambia.
~Sometime in the 2nd millennium BC, perhaps triggered by the drying of the Sahara and pressure from the migration of people from the Sahara into the region, they were forced to expand into the rainforests of central Africa (phase I).
The Mongols
~The Mongols originated and spread from Mongolia and by the end of Genghis Khan’s death, the Mongols had migrated and controlled parts of China, the Middle East, parts of Russia, and all the way up to the Caspian Sea.

~ His decedents went on to conquer even more land, showing that the Mongols could migrate and conquer from the smallest area, to the largest empire ever.
~The reason for migration was because the groups of humans had little food and went out to search for more. Humans went to areas of the environment they thought would suit them better, and eventually settle down in.
~The human race originated in eastern Africa. From 750,000 B.C.E to 600,000 B.C.E humans where developing as a species. Around 600,000 B.C.E the first humans migrated out of Africa an into places such as China, southeast Asia, and the rest of Africa.

Human Migration Out of Africa
Settlement of Jews in New York
~ During and after WWII, and in early 1900’s, Jews traveled to the U.S for refuge and sanctuary to escape Hitler.
~ Many Jews got to the U.S through Ellis Island, where they were checked and inspected before being aloud into New York.
~ The reason that there is a large percent of Jews in New York today is because Jews started lives here and there was no need to spread deeper into the U.S. Also, once Jews started lives here, their family members moved here too later on to be with their families.
Settling of Hunter-Gather Societies
~ The Neolithic Revolution caused an increase in the human population, showing that a group of people settling down can increase in size due to more resources and crops.
~With the development of agriculture, humans found in less necessary to be nomadic. So, if nomadic peoples migrating from Africa cam upon land in the Middle East or southeast Asia that was arable, they would settle down and grow crops.

European Settlement of Africa
~Almost at the same time as the Dutch, other European powers attempted to create their own outposts for the African slave trade.
~The exploration of Sub-Saharan Africa begins with the Age of Discovery in the 15th century, pioneered by kingdom of posts along the coast while they were actively exploring and colonizing the New World.
Interchangeable Parts
The Guillotine
~The guillotine is the machine that killed monarch Louis XVI during the French Revolution and thousands more.
~ The guillotine was invented by Dr. Joseph Guillotine. He argued it was a humane way of dying and was also an equal way of dying. This saying that it showed no difference if you died rich vie guillotine or poor vie guillotine.

The Printing Press
~Knowledge of the press quickly spread across Europe and led to the mass production of books
~Producing thousands of pages a day, compared to the few that could be produced by hand, allowed for the spread of new ideas faster
~Interchangeable parts were popularized in America when Eli Whitney used them to assemble muskets in the first years of the 19th century.
~Allowed relatively unskilled workers to produce large numbers of weapons quickly and at lower cost, and made repair and replacement of parts infinitely easier.
Magnetic Compass
~A navigational tool that determines direction using the magnetic poles of Earth
~Played a key role in European exploration later
~Knowledge of the compass spread from China across the Indian Ocean and was used by Arab and Persian sailors in the 100s(A.D.)
The Steam Engine
~A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
~Facilitated major advancements in the fields of mining, manufacturing, agriculture and transportation.
Religions
Belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies
Science and technology
The arts and architecture
Theme 3: State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict
Political structures and forms of governance
Empires
Nations and nationalism
Revolts and revolutions
Regional, trans-regional and global structures/organizations
~Christianity is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in the New Testament.
Christianity
~It has many sects such as, Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox.
Judaism
~It began with the Hebrew people in the Middle East beginning with Abraham. Judaism is a base religion for Islam and Christianity.
~Today, approximately 14 million people identify themselves as Jews. There are three main branches of Judaism, each with different approaches to religious life.
~ At one point in Chinese history, Confucianism and Buddhism clashed.
~ Buddhism was created by Buddha, or Siddhartha Gautama.
~ Buddhism teaches the Four Noble Truths, and the Eight Fold Path. It also teaches reincarnation and that the only way to stop the cycle is to reach Nirvana.
Buddhism
Confucianism
~ It began with the philosopher Confucius who lived around 750 B.C.E. He went out and searched for a ruler who would respect and appreciate his beliefs and ideals.
~ Confucianism would remain in Chinese culture for up to 3,000 or so years and it is somewhat still present today. Confucianism teaches people to respect their elders, education is important and it sets up a social hierarchy.
~ His ideals did not become popular until after he died, so he never knew what his beliefs amounted to.
Marxism
~Principles include the class struggle, a labor theory of value and a proletariat dictatorship.
~Socialism with the goal of a classless society.
~Type of ideology
The Atomic Bomb
~ With the introduction of the world to the atomic bomb brought out the U.S as a bigger superpower than it was before WWII. After the bombings many countries tried to develop their own atomic bombs.
~The first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6th, 1945 by the U.S. The second atomic bomb was dropped by the U.S or Nagasaki, Japan on August 9th 1945.
Printing Press
~Johann Gutenberg in the 1430s improved on pre-existing technology (block printing with a screw press.
~The printing press allowed enormous quantities of information to be recorded and spread throughout the world. Books had previously been items only the extremely rich could afford, but mass production brought the price down tremendously.
Hagia Sophia
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~It's a great architectural beauty and an important monument both for Byzantine and
for Ottoman Empires.
~Once a church, later a mosque, and now a museum at the Turkish Republic, Hagia Sophia has always been the precious of its time.
Communism
Democracy
~ When communism was just an idea or theory in the late 19th and early 20th century, the world did not see it as a threat. When Russia and China, some of the largest states of the time, adopted communism and threatened other countries with it, known as the domino affect, other countries such as the U.S started to worry and combat it.
~ The idea of communism was made by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Together they wrote the basis of communism called “The Communist Manifesto.”
~ Russia really started picking up communism around the time they started industrializing.

~ Communism tries to create a classless and stateless society. Communism teaches that the government should control all ways of production and education. Communism also does not support religion.
~ Lenin liked the idea of communism, therefore introducing Russia to communism in the early 20th century. Communism arose in China with Mao Zedong combating the anti-communist Chiang Kai-Shek. Communism, in the end, took over China.
~The idea of democracy is that the country is run by the people, for the people. The definition of democracy clearly clashes with communism, therefore making countries of democracy irate of communist countries. During the Cold War era, with the spread of democracy in Europe, Fascism was crushed.


~ With the appearance of democracy in contrast to Communism, and with democracy being successful, it created a distinct contrast between the two.
The Roman Empire
~The Roman Empire, at its height, was the most extensive political and social structure in western civilization.
~The Roman Empire began when Augustus Caesar became the first emperor of Rome (31 BCE) and ended, in the west, when the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic King Odoacer (476 CE).
~In the east, it continued as the Byzantine Empire until the death of Constantine XI and the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453 CE. The influence of the Roman Empire on western civilization was profound in its lasting contributions to virtually every aspect of western culture.
The Mongol Empire
- The Mongol Empire was created and founded by The Great Khan, also named Genghis Khan. After he died, his decedents controlled his empire.
- The Mongols were the only people to defeat the Russians in the winter and have influenced the cultures of Korea, Russia, and China. If the Mongols never existed, these countries might not be what they are today.
- The Mongols were different from other empires of its time because it originated solely from nomads and they never took up agriculture extensively.
Cause of WWII:Nationalism
~When the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was killed in Serbia, Austria ended up declaring war on Serbia, and therefore Russia. Austria’s nationalism and patriotism fired the Austrians up when they heard of the death.

~ The idea of someone being apart of a country and belonging there sparked the idea of nationalism. Nationalism was around long before WW1, but being a nationalist of believing in your country was the fuel to the fire that was WWI.
Hitler's use of Nationalism
~Hitler united Germany by ignoring the Treaty of Versailles, a treaty that was an embarrassment for Germany as a whole.
~According to the ideology of nationalism, the central entity or unit governing political and cultural life is the nation. Each individual "belongs to" a particular nation and attains identity by virtue of his or her relationship to the nation and its "national life."
The Industrial Revolution
~ This revolution was about the rise of new technology and increase in production and it originated in Europe. Some inventions created during this time was the steam engine and the chemicals instead of home remedies with herbs.

~ The Industrial Revolution changed the way nations look at their economies and if they were competing with the lead countries in production and trade.
The French Revolution
~King Louis the XVI was not doing a very good job at being king during the later half of the 18th century. France’s people were very hungry and upset.
~ On August 26, 1789 the Declaration of the Rights of Man was made. Peace was reached, but eventually broken.
~In the long run, France exchanged a authoritarian regime, for an authoritarian regime.
NATO
~ NATO stands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
~ The U.S, Canada, Great Britain, and Western European countries who were against the Soviet Union’s presence.
~It was a military alliance made in 1949.
~The EU is a unique economic and political partnership between 28 European countries.
~The EU was created in the aftermath of WWII.
The European Union
The Green Revolution
~The Green Revolution refers to a series of research, and development, and technology transfer initiatives that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world.
~Occurred between the 1940s and the late 1960s
Aztec Farming Methods: Chinampas
~Aztec agriculture in the heart of the empire used chinampas for their crops.
~Chinampa is a method of farming that used small, rectangular areas to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Mexican valley.
The Columbian Exchange
~The Columbian Exchange or Grand Exchange was the widespread transfer of animals, plants, culture, human populations, communicable diseases, technology and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres
~New world native plats: maize, tomato, potato, vanilla, etc.
~Old world native plants: citrus, apple, banana, onion, rice, wheat, mango, etc.
The Slave Trade
~European explorers and settlers reached the west coast of Africa and took the African Americans as slaves.
~There was slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas and there was trade across the Sahara desert into the Middle East. The slave trade linked Africa to the rest of the world’s economy and greatly affected countries like the U.S by changing up its demographics.
The Mita System
~The mita system was indeed a hard form of labor, but it was better than the encomienda system. Cities like Machu Picchu in Peru would not be here today if the mita system did not exist.
~The mita system was a form of forced labor in the early America’s. The natives would forcibly recruited and required to do state projects. A lot of the natives died in these projects.
The Encomienda System
~The encomienda was a dependency relation system, that started in Spain during the Roman Empire, where the stronger people protected the weakest in exchange for a service.
~In reality, however, the encomienda system was thinly-masked slavery and led to some of the worst horrors of the colonial era.
~The industrial growth that began in the United States in the early 1800's and continued steadily up to and through the American Civil War.
The Industrial Revolution in the U.S.
~The value of goods produced by American industry increased almost tenfold between 1870 and 1916.
The Industrial Revolution in the USSR
~Stalin wanted to combat The Great Depression, so he decided to industrialize Russia. He ran the Soviet Union as a communist leader, putting the government in charge of the market and production.
~With the industrialization of the Soviet Union, Stalin neglected the peasants and farmers. He didn’t keep food production up. Millions of people died due to starvation.
The Truman Doctrine
~During The Cold War the U.S feared that other countries would be influenced by Russia and China.
~President Truman set up a doctrine that stated that the U.S would stop the domino effect of the spread of communism and help any country being threatened with communist influence with militarily support.
~This war was a win on communisms side because when the U.S left Vietnam the communists took over. The history of countries like the U.S, a capitalist country, and Vietnam, a socialist country, is very long. Capitalism and socialism have very different views on how a country should be run and the Vietnam War is a very good example of the tension being released.

The Vietnam War
~The U.S was following its pledge under the Truman Doctrine and was trying to stop the spread of communism throughout Vietnam.
Gender Roles in the Neolithic Age
~Gender roles were relatively more equal during this time period than later in human history. Because men and women contributed a lot to the nomadic groups survival, and both forms of contribution could be balanced out evenly on the importance scale, women were respected almost as equally as men were respected.
~When the human race was just starting out, they were nomadic peoples, hunter gatherers. The men were the ones who went out and hunted and the women gathered resources and took care of the children.
~Before the First World War, the traditional paid female roles in western countries were mostly restricted to the domestic sphere, as servants and housewives, plus factory jobs in textiles and clothing.
~The two world wars hinged as much on industrial production as they did on battlefield clashes. With millions of men away fighting and with the inevitable casualties, there was a severe shortage of labor in a range of industries, from rural and farm work to urban office jobs, in which women filled.
Women in the World Wars
~Upon the death of their father, the sons would fight among themselves until one emerged triumphant.
~During their father's lifetime, all of the adult sons of the reigning sultan would hold provincial governorships.
~In the early period, the Ottomans practiced open succession, or "survival of the fittest, not eldest, son."
Throne Inheritance of the Ottoman Empire
Family Roles in China
~This system still affects China today and the system hasn’t changed very much. Women are now allowed in the work force but are still responsible for the caring of the children. However, in China’s past it didn’t matter how many kids you had. Now, population growth is a problem. Families should want to have a boy as a child and will often kill newborn daughters.
~China has been influenced by Confucianism since around 750 B.C.E. Confucianism teaches for the youth to look up to their elders. The men were the money makers in the family and the women were to take care of the children and teach them the fundamentals of life. The children were to never be uncaring or unpleasant towards their parents or elders as well.

Segregation in the U.S
The Social Hierarchy in Latin American
~When Europeans came to the America’s, the men away from their European women would reproduce with the native women. This created a class of natives, Europeans, and a mixed race.

~ The king was the head of the social structure

~Whites and blacks were separated to everything from water fountains to restaurants. Segregation remained a problem in the U.S until the 1950’s.
~After the slaves were freed in the U.S, African Americans still remained inferior to white Americans. Even though the law freed the slaves, America didn’t want to change the racial diversity just~ yet.
The Disappearance of the Samurai
~The Samurais were beaten and forced to give up their swords and convert to bureaucrats, resulting in a complete shift in social classes.
~Japan was facing a time where it had to either fall behind other countries and loose its independence, or modernize. Japan chose to modernize, and with that the old system had to go. In that old system was a high social class made up of warriors, the samurai.
Feudalism
~The dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
~Feudalism, in its various forms, usually emerged as a result of the decentralization of an empire
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