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Inventions

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matthew mayo

on 1 April 2014

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Transcript of Inventions

The ancient Mesopotamians pioneered many advances in technology. They had a hand in every field, including: agriculture, construction and math to name a few. Many of these still see use today and have had long lasting historical impacts.
Inventions
-The Mesopotamians created a base 60 counting system.
-This was an extension of their writing system.
-The massive advance Mesopotamians made in mathematics were astounding.
-The mesopotamians created the ideas of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
-They also divided the circle into 360 degrees and hours into 60 minutes and minutes into 60 seconds.
-Thought to be discovered by the Sumerians in the city of Ur.
-Originally thought to have been created from mud drying on the river banks. They would have shaped it to resemble bricks to build shelters.
-The primary building material for most of history, especially in wood starved Mesopotamia.
Mud bricks
-Mesopotamians had many distinct and interesting buildings throughout their culture.
-Many building have reached a legendary status even though many haven't survived until today.
The number 60 or to be more accurate, a base 60 counting system, was an important Mesopotamian invention. It allowed them to make large advances in math and science. For example the 60 minute hour and 60 second minute were all based of Mesopotamian time keeping.
The Number Sixty
Many incredible marvels of construction were created by the Mesopotamians. Some may have even influenced buildings in other cultures
Construction
Buildings
The idea
Advances
The wheel is a great example
of an invention still used
today.
It had to come eventually
Quiz
The Mesopotamia's have been
given credit as the inventors of
many forms of early
transportation.Both the wheel
and the sail's invention has been credited to the Mesopotamians.
Transportation
Arguably one of the greatest accomplishments in history belonged
to the Mesopotamian culture. the invention was the development of the worlds first written language "cuneiform".
Writing
-The worlds first know written language.
-It was adopted by every major Mesopotamian culture.
-Originally a pictographic language.
Cuneiform
-Originally the language consisted of pictures of objects. This is because it was created for trading.
-As the language evolved it became less picture based and word were a combination of lines and wedges.
History
-Invented by the Syrians around 1800 BCE.
-It was used both as a tool for hunting and, as a moving platform for archers or spear men.
-Originally it was unstable and unreliable and thus wasn't used as a front line tool, rather used after a fight to clean up survivors.
-As time went on the design improved and the chariot became an essential part of any charge.
The Chariot
-The Assyrians were originally credited with the invention of the wheel.
-The first use of the wheel was actually as a potters wheel.
-Carts using a wheel and axle system came later due to how finicky the system could be.
-Almost all modern technology is based off of some form of wheel and axle idea.
The Wheel
3.What language was the old testament partially written in?
A.Arabic
B.Cantonese
C.Aramaic
D.English

4.What was the wheel originally used
for?
1.What was Cuneiform based on?
A.Nothing
B.Pictures
C.Previous languages

2.What were cuneiform letters eventually made of?
A.Lines
B.Wedges
C.Circles
D.A&B
An example of a cuneiform letter
-Cuneiform had a large impact on trade, it allowed deals to be recorded.
-It also allowed for stories and beliefs to be recorded.
-This gave the options to write as a form of art. The Sumerians had the first form of written literature.
Impact
-The epic of Gilgamesh was the first piece of written literature.
-Even the old testament was partially written in Aramaic, the Assyrian version of cuneiform.
Stories
-They also created formulas for finding out the area and circumference of many shapes.
-It has even been suggested that they knew the Pythagorean theorem long before it was written down.
Advances Cont'd
-These advance allowed the mesopotamians to make large complicated building requiring a degree of engineering.
-It also allowed trading to be conducted more accurately and efficiently.
-This allowed the country to grow to massive degrees.
Importance
-Originally written by the Sumerian king of Uruk on 12 clay tablets.
-It has been changed slightly and circulated between many of the Mesopotamian empires.
-It is the (fictional) story of the Sumerian king Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
-A mythical building, rumored to have been in the city of of Babylon. But if the biblical stories are to be believed it would more likely have been in the city of Akkad.
-The story of the tower was that Noah's ancestors built a tower that would reach heaven. God became angry and made everyone speak in different languages so it couldn't be completed.
Tower of Babel
-A structure that, unfortunately,
didn't survive until modern times.
-None the less it has been declared an ancient wonder of the world.
-Claimed to be hundreds of feet tall it was likely closer to 25
The Hanging Gardens
-The religious centers of Mesopotamian cities
-They were monolithic stepped pyramids, situated in the middle of all real cities.
-Many cultures created similar structures later. The egyptians created their famous pyramids; on a completely separate continent the Mayans were creating their own Ziggurats.
Ziggurats
-Not actually a Mesopotamian creation.
-It was written by the original Jews upon escaping their capture by Babylonians.
-Some stories and some of the writing was inspired by the jews time in Mesopotamia.
The Old Testament
-A beautiful garden created in the city of Babylon
-The gardens were claimed to have been built for King Nebuchadnezzar II's wife, because she missed here flora rich home.
Hanging gardens Cont'd
-Nobody knows for sure where the first boats were created. Mesopotamian boats were made of inflated and stretched animal skins and clay pots or wood depending on the region.
-The creation of the sail has been credited to the Mesopotamians though.
The Sailboat
-The first sailboats were created by the Mesopotamians to help trade between cities.
-They had fixed sails and thus weren't very helpful unless you got a favorable wind.

The Sailboat Cont'd
5.Who first created the chariot?
A.The Babylonians
B.The Akkadians
C.The Sumerians

6.Name the three materials most boats were made of.
7.What were the limitations of the Mesopotamian sailboats?

8.What was the primary building material in Mesopotamia?
A.Mud brick
B.Stone brick
C.Lumber
D.Drywall
9.What biblical building was rumored to be in the city of Babylon?
A.The Empire State Building
B.The Ziggurat of Ur
C.The Tower of Babel

10.Why did Nebuchadnezzar construct the hanging gardens?
The Progression
of Agriculture
-The change from a nomadic lifestyle to farming probably happened around
10,000 - 6,000 BC in
northern Mesopotamia.
-There was enough rainfall in Mesopotamia to grow crops, the main ones being barley and wheat.


-Domesticated animals included:pigs,sheep, cattle, and goats.
Southern Mesopotamia
-The southern plains of the
Tigris and Euphrates were extremely fertile.


-There was little rainfall and extreme
heat which sometimes dried up the rivers in the summer.

-Floods would wash away their homes.
-Mesopotamians created dikes/levees, canals, and channels to control the floodwaters.
The Solution
The Plough
Beam-ard.
Pulled by two oxen,the machine scratches the soil(not turning). Around 4000-3000BC.

Seed Plough: drops seeds through a funnel into
the indentations created by the plough.
Around 2300BC.
Food in Mesopotamia
-Most common foods were
bread and beer.

-Diet between social classes
was similar, however meat was
a delicacy.

-Meats: Sheep, goats, dried/salted/
smoked fish, beef and poultry. Delicacies included gazelle, mice and locusts.



Food C'ntd...
-The diet included lots of raw foods, especially vegetables and fruits.


-Foods often eaten were fish eggs, crustaceans, turtles and locusts.

-Kitchens and the knowledge of cooking were reserved the the elite eg. priests and the gods.


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