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APA Style!!

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Asawari Bapat

on 25 November 2013

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Transcript of APA Style!!

Common mistakes
Why use APA Format?
Formatting papers in accordance to APA style guidelines assures :
It assists the writer to
avoid plagiarism
by giving formal credit to the different source. Thus ultimately
upholds academic integrity.

What is the APA Format?
in the areas of:

It is the
American Psychological Association
Traditionally only used for writing Psychology papers or journals, APA format has expanded its terrain over the years. Today, APA style format is used for many papers in the department of criminology, sociology, social sciences, etc. APA format has a set of rules that the writer needs to follow , while writing a paper or journal in APA Format.This project will illustrate the basics of APA style, the formatting recommendations, organization, ways of citing and referencing the resources and most importantly, how to avoid plagiarism. Many universities are now abiding to the APA format rules and thus expect students to give formal credits to the resources that assist them (students) in making of the project. The American Psychological Association has various editions of the APA Publication Manuals, the 6th edition being the most recent one.

Content and Organization
Writing Style
APA formatting gives the research paper sound structure, scholarly weight and presentation uniformity. It outlines the exact specifications for a document including such components as
font type
margin settings
page numbering
in-text citations and reference lists
. APA formatting divides papers into clear sections including a
Headings and seriations title page, abstract, main body, reference list .
This uniformity enables readers and subsequent researchers to quickly access information within a given document and also to compare and contrast one research article to another.

Language Bias
According to Nordquist (n.d),words and phrases that are considered prejudiced, offensive, and hurtful.
**More detailed and specific information illustrated further in the presentation.

Under APA style guidelines, academic
writing is required to be clear, concise and consistent in tone. APA style indicates the proper use of sentence structure, vocabulary, grammar and punctuation. It advises use of formal language that also avoids
language bias.
This medium of writing ensures the effective communication of the purpose, method, results and conclusions of a writer's research to his readers and future researchers

Double-spaced throughout (including references).Only one space should be added between the period at the end of a sentence and the first letter of the next.
Margin: One inch margin all around.
Paragraphs: All paragraphs should be indented half an inch. Do not add extra lines between paragraphs or sections.
APA formatting lends credibility and legitimacy to a college student’s work. Through objective writing and
in-text citations
and references, a reader can easily verify the information.
The names of authors, articles and journal titles are all readily accessible, and all in-text citations must be supported by the reference list at the document’s end.
Whether the writer is performing a review of literature or conducting independent research, he is presenting transparent evidence to support his thesis and inviting the reader to fully investigate the contents of his paper.
The APA style guide offers clear directions on the use of quotations and paraphrasing and forbids plagiarism. Insisting upon properly crediting sources teaches students the value of scholarly work and reinforces the worth of their own efforts. For the college student, incidents of plagiarism, however unintentional, can result in failing grades, dismissal from a course and even expulsion from a university.

Font Formatting


Serif Sans Serif


12 point.

8-14 point.

Use the same font type and size for the graph legend as you do for the rest of the graph.
Number all tables with arabic numerals sequentially. Do not use suffix letters (e.g. Table 3a, 3b, 3c); instead, combine the related tables. If the manuscript includes an appendix with tables, identify them with capital letters and arabic numerals.
Use the full term followed with the abbreviation in parenthesis on the instance of its first usage.Standard abbreviations like units of measurement and states do not need to be written out. APA also allows abbreviations that appear as words in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary to be used without explanation (IQ, REM, AIDS, HIV).
Language Bias
Parts of APA format
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that th
e author's last name
and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

General Rules
Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, There Is Nothing Left to Lose.
(Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.)
When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock Vertigo."
Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.
Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds"; "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."
Sensitive to labels:
Refer to groups with the terms that they prefer. It is more dehumanizing to use the term LDs (Learning Disabilities) than students with dyslexia.
Racial and Ethnic Identity:
Racial and ethnic groups are proper nouns and should be capitalized. No hyphens. more global labels (e.g., Korean, Japanese, and/or Chinese rather than Asian).American Indians and Native Americans are both acceptable. Black and African American are both acceptable. Asian is preferred to Oriental. White is acceptable and should be capitalized.
Words that are gender specific (he, policeman) may incorrectly imply that only men are being described; sexist bias also occurs when the pronoun he is used to refer to both sexes. Replacing he with he and she, he/she, or s/he is cumbersome and should be done sparingly.
Sexual Orientation:
Sexual orientation is currently preferred to sexual preference. Lesbian and Gay men are preferred to homosexuals.
Use disability to refer to an attribute of a person - handicap refers to the source of the limitations.Avoid language that equates people with their conditions (e.g., neurotics, the disabled,
paraplegics); that has superfluous, negative overtones (e.g., stroke victim); or that is regarded as a
slur (e.g., cripple).
Age ranges should be as specific as possible (e.g., 12-18 rather than under 18).
Boy and girl should be used for people of high school age and younger.
Young man, young woman, male adolescent, and female adolescent are acceptable when appropriate.
Men and women should be used for people over 18 (or of college age and older).
Elderly is not acceptable. Older person is preferred.

Readers get an idea about organization of the text from the heading, thus it is very important. First decide on the number of levels, even before deciding how they look!

Level Format
1 Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings

2 Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading

3 Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with a period.
(Begin body text after period.)

4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.
(Begin body text after period.)

5 Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with a period.
(Begin body text after period.)

Elements of a Title Page :
Article title: Should be specific. Capitalize major words (only).
Centered in the upper half of the page.
APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length.
Avoid unnecessary abbreviations.
Everything should be double spaced.
Authors name: Beneath the Title
First name, middle initial(s), and last name. Do not use titles (Dr.) or degrees (PhD).
Author's school affiliation which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.
Running Head: the running head is an abbreviated title that is printed at the top left (header)of the pages of a manuscript and should be no longer than 50 characters (including spaces and punctuation)
Page number: Title Page would have page number '1' at the top right corner of the page.
Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header (i.e The running head and the page number). Then :
On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).
From the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) Your abstract should contain (at least) :
Your research topic
Research questions
Data Analysis
Implications of your research. (Optional)
Future linked projects. (Optional)
Your abstract should be a single paragraph ranging between 150-250 words and double-spaced.
You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords.
(Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.)

All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called
hanging indentation.
Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author's name. After the ellipses, list the last author's name of the work.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
Present the journal title in full.
Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title.
Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.
Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
In-text-citations and references are different. Citations are included and inserted in the main body text while references are attached at the end of of the main body text.
Short Quotation
If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number.
Long Quotation
"No two countries that both had McDonald's had fought a war against each other since each got its McDonald's" (Friedman, 1999, p. 195).
Jones's (1998) study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA style,especially when it was their first time citing sources.This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask
their teacher for help. (p. 199)

To place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer omit quotation marks
Start the quotation on a new line.
Indented 1/2 inch from the left margin i.e. in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.
Type the entire quotation on the new margin
Maintain double-spacing throughout.
The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).
Running Head: Stress Challenges 1
Significant Stress Challenges

Holy N.Brown

Argos University
APA Formatting Recommendations
Title Page
Parts of APA Format
Parts of APA Format
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include:
the author
year of publication
page number for the reference (preceded by "p.")
Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses (brackets).
If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
Thomas Friedman (1999) wrote, "No two countries that both had McDonald's had fought a war against each other since each got its McDonald's" (p. 195).
In-Text Citations

APA allows writers to use seriation, thus helping them organize their work.
Numbered seriation
Bulleted seriation
Lettered seriation
For lists that do not communicate hierarchical order or chronology, use bullets.
Authors may also use seriation for paragraph length text.
Authors may also separate points with bullet lists.
APA Formatting Recommendations
Formation, arrangement, succession, or position in a series or orderly sequence
Seriation Meaning
It looks childish, but its all big peoples' play!!
A good laugh!!??
For a better understanding of plagiarism.
Detecting Plagiarism
There are various 'plagiarism detecting' free tools online for your supervisor to use. Thus the chances of your work not getting caught are just close to nothing. But if these tools are available to your supervisor for free, they are available to you as well. Why not check your work before submitting it in!
You did not plagiarize. But do you still want to check?
Yes! Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional. But the trouble you might get in for is the same. Thus even if you did not (intentionally) plagiarize, you should check for instances of plagiarism in your assignment before submitting it.
Also, try different sources to check plagiarism. One of the sources might indicate your article is plagiarism-free, but the other might indicate an instance of plagiarism. Keep checking until you are satisfied and obviously make appropriate changes suggested by the tool. But ALERT: Not all tools are reliable. Do a few mock plagiarism checks to ensure the website you are following is reliable.
Since it is completely free, some websites have a specific time gap between two submissions, while some websites have a specific number of paper an individual user could submit for free (after that you have to pay to use that tool further).
Digital Object Identifier
86.3% of all papers either did not have a running head or had a running head that was formatted incorrectly.
In 2012, 72.7% of the authors who submitted a paper didn’t format the “Abstract” heading correctly or didn’t have an abstract in the first place.
In addition to problems with the abstract, 61.3% of the students who submitted papers did not include keywords in their paper.
84% students had problems with citations. (Remember citations and references are different things!)

The URL (Uniform Resource Locator or Web address) that appears in Internet Explorer's or another Web browser's address box, when an online article is viewed, is usually intended to be temporary and often does not function a few days or weeks later. Links designated as "permanent", "persistent" or "stable" are designed specifically to remain active and useable over time. Most frequently used permanent link is the Digital Object Identifier (DOI). A DOI is a standardized method for identifying an electronic object.

The International DOI foundation assigns an alpha-numeric string to every content available on the web and thus provide a persistent link to its various locations on the internet. The American Psychological association recommends writers to add the web link and the DOI when available.

Main Applications of the DOI:
Persistent citations in scholarly materials (journal articles, books, etc.) through CrossRef- a consortium of around 3,000 publishers, scientific data sets,
through DataCite, a collaboration of leading research libraries, technical information providers, and scientific data centres and European Union official publications, through the EU publications office.
APA Formatting Recommendations
APA Formatting Recommendations
Parts of APA Format

Cherry, K., (n.d). APA Format-General Rules for APA Format. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/apastyle/a/apageneral.htm

Cort, D., (n.d). What Fonts to Use for APA. Retrieved from http://classroom.synonym.com/fonts-use-apa-2585.html
Emma, L., (n.d). What Is the Purpose of APA Formatting in College Writing? Retrieved from http://classroom.synonym.com/purpose-apa-formatting-college-writing-1089.html

Paiz, J.M., Angeli, E., Wagner J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., . . Keck, R., (2010). APA Stylistics: Avoiding Bias. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/14/

Paiz, J.M., Angeli, E., Wagner J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., . . Keck, R., (2013). APA Tables and Figures 1. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/19/

Paiz, J.M., Angeli, E., Wagner J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., . . Keck, R., (2013). General Format. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Paiz, J.M., Angeli, E., Wagner J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., . . Keck, R., (2013). APA Headings and Seriations. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/16/

Paiz, J.M., Angeli, E., Wagner J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., . . Keck, R., (2013). Reference List: Basic Rules. Retrieved from http://prezi.com/idgk3xglxtoh/edit/#5_24309637

Paiz, J.M., Angeli, E., Wagner J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., . . Keck, R., (2013). In-Text Citations: The basics. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/02/

Stefanie, (2010). A Little Respect. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/bias-free-language/

Vasilev, M., (2013). What Are The Most Common APA Style Mistakes Done By Students? Retrieved from http://blog.efpsa.org/2013/01/15/what-are-the-most-common-apa-style-mistakes-done-by-students/

Valenzuela, J.S., (2006). Julia’s Quick and Dirty Guide to APA. Retrieved from http://www.unm.edu/~devalenz/handouts/APA.html

Running Head: APA Style
TxStSocClub, (2011). The Video to End Plagiarism. Retrieved from

YSJLTD, (2013). Understanding Plagiarism. Retrieved from
Referencing- Social Media
Message/Post/ Tweet:
Cite the last name of the author (screen name if that is the only thing available).
Then include the exact date the tweet/post/message was posted/sent.
Include the Page Type (Facebook, Twitter, etc.)
Then provide a retrievable link to the post.
Referencing: Periodicals
General way:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. Retrieved from http://kh.dloi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy
Article in Journal Paginated by Volume:
Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.
E.g. Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Article in Journal Paginated by Issue:
Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.
E.g. Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.

Article in a Newspaper
Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B7; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B7, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4.
E.g. Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

Article in a Magazine
Not very different from the general format.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Some tricky looking references:

One to Seven Authors:
List the by last names and initials; commas should separate author names, while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand.
* In case of two authors, the names should be seperated by 'and'.
More than seven Authors:
List by last names and initials; commas separate author names. After the sixth author's name, use an ellipses in place of the author names. Then provide the final author name. There should be no more than seven names.
Unknown Author:
When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate.
E.g. (Merriam-Webster's, 1993).
Organization as the Author:
State the name of the organization, and then the date of publication.
APA Formatting Recommendations

Font Formatting
Use Arabic figures:
For numbers > 10
For statistical or mathematical functions
Proportions, ratios, percentages (use %)
For measures of time, ages, dates, exact sums of money
To describe a sample size, specific number of participants
To denote a specific place in a numbered series, parts of book, tables
All numbers in an abstract of a paper
Use Spellings:
One through nine when not used with units of
measurement or used in comparisons with
numbers 10 or greater
One or zero
Common fractions
Common expressions
Used to begin a sentence

Video references
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