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EU History - European Union History

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Karin Gaudet-Asmus

on 14 October 2014

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Transcript of EU History - European Union History

History of the European Union Expansion Group discussion what are European values? What does Europe mean in your life? What does the EU do for Ireland? What does Europe mean historically & today? Europa WWII In Greek Mythology Charlemagne Kant & Rousseau 800 AD 800 BC 18th century The idea of William Penn 17th century Napoleon 19th century Victor Hugo 19th century Churchill "We must build a kind of United States of Europe" "A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood" "The United States of Europe would become a possibility" "Father of Europe" (pater Europae) Today's lecture Twentieth Century Treaty of Paris signed 1951, entered into force 1952 expired in 2002 (ran for 50 years) European Steel & Coal
Community common market coal & steel re. production & prices
High Authority (supranational) supervised by Council
signed by 6 States: Benelux, France, Germany, Italy Treaties of Rome (the EEC & EURATOM Treaty) Established common market
No customs duties
Competition Policy
Equal pay, equal work
4 institutions: ECJ; Commission (supranational); Assembly; Council European Economic Signed in 1957,
entered into force 1958 to create interdependence in coal and steel so one country could not mobilize its armed forces without others Purpose European Atomic Treaty of Brussels (the merger treaty) signed 1965 entered into force 1967 Main changes creation of a single Commission and a single Council to serve the then three European Communities (EEC, Euratom, ECSC) Repealed by theTreaty of Amsterdam. Single European Act Signed in 1986, Luxembourg & The Hague Entered into force 1987 Main changes extend qualified majority voting in Council
cooperation procedure for EP
(now superseded) Treaty of Lisbon Signed 2007 Entered into force 2009 Main changes Created new TEU & TFEU
Set out values of EU
Legal personality of EU
Enhanced cooperation MSs
Permanent president of European Council
High Representative for Foreign Affairs & diplomatic corps
clarifies competences of EU
Declaration adopted flag, motto and anthem Maastricht Treaty (Treaty on the EU) signed 1992 entered into force 1993 Main changes est. European Union with citizenship
introduce co-decision procedure EP for certain sectors
independent European Central Bank & limited deficits
three pillar structure:
(1) European Community (supranational)
(2) Common Foreign & Security Policy
(3) Justice & Home Affairs
est. subsidiarity principle
Ireland protocol on abortion
Denmark protocol on second homes Treaty of Amsterdam signed 1997 entered into force 1999 extended EP co-decision procedure
extended Council QMV
integrated Schengen agreements in TEU
created area Freedom, Security & Justice
Union founded on liberty, democracy, human rights, rule of law, freedom (art. 6 TEU)
Enhanced cooperation Main changes Treaty of Nice Signed 2001 Entered into force 2003 Main changes Did very little
Extended Council QMV into mostly procedural areas Europe Who was Europa? US influence & values Free markets Constitutional democracy How are European values
different or the same? Meanwhile... France is worried about German steel and coal production Schuman Declaration 1950 (Treaty establishing the ECSC) Community Energy Community Luxembourg Accords De Gaulle opposed supranatural organisation & supported inter-governmental one De Gaulle walked out of Council in 1965 Agreement that each MS would have veto power over decision making Shortly afterwards, Luxembourg Accords less used and vote taken where majority of MSs 'vote to go to a vote' Copenhagen Criteria 1993 To enter EU, countries must have: (1) Institutions guaranteeing democracy, rule of law, human rights and minority protection
(2) Market economy
(3) Adherence to EU aims and adoption of EU legislation Is Turkey suitable?
Irish voters rejected it
Declaration confirmed it did not affect Irish military neutrality
Irish approved it Constitutional Treaty rejected 2005
(France, Netherlands) Proposed changes:
EU flag, anthem, motto, holiday
Precedence of EU law over
national law
Regulations/Directives called
Laws/Framework Laws
Legal personality for EU
Foreign Minister Although some of the above changes were rejected, the substantive changes were adopted by the Lisbon Treaty Democracy or not? Gauweiler v Treaty of Lisbon Supranationalisation? Yes: criminal matters, further development of EU institutions, Van Gend en Loos No: national security, brake procedures for social security and criminal justice, Luxembourg Accords, European Council, protocols of exemption (Ireland, UK, Denmark) Representation not proportionate to numbers, ECJ & Council, lack popular knowledge, e.g. Ireland, Treaty changes
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