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Claire Stubendorff

on 1 March 2017

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Transcript of Classification

All living things have a few things in common:
Response to environment
Use of energy
Genetic info.

2 Branches of the Animal Kingdom now take 2 very different paths. The key to their division is how they develop:
Phytoplankton & Zooplankton
Vertebrates - Ch.8
Marine Plants,
Algae and Phytoplankton

Protostomes vs. Deuterostomes
We can classify or break up living organisms in to smaller groups to make it easier to identify them. We do this based on certain traits they have including:
DNA, cell structure, physical characteristics

There are three large groups we can classify living things into. We call these Domains.
Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryotes

The Organization of Living Things

Carolus Linnaeus
Swedish Botanist born in 1707. Binomial Naming of species
Within the Eukaryotic Group, we can break down these organisms into 4 groups:
Protists, Fungi, Plants and Animals

Protists - included phytoplankton & sea weed
Plants - marine plants like Mangroves & Sea grasses
Fungi - not that common in the ocean.

They lack a backbone & are considered more primitive (less evolved) BUT there are some like the octopus that are very smart!
Porifera - Sponges
The first group of Animals
No true tissues
No systems (digestive)
No symmetry
But they are consumers!
Cnidarians & Ctenophores
Jelly-like bodies, often clear and sometimes glow.
Primitive nervous, digestive systems
Use tentacles & stinging cells to capture prey
Radial symmetry (circle)
Platyhelminthes - Flat Worms
The first group of worms
Similar to Cnidarians with only one gut opening & primitive nervous/digestive systems.
Bilateral Symmetry means formation of a head with eyes!
More on Jellies:
Stinging Cells - Nematocysts
Highly venemous species include the Australian Box Jelly
Corals are Cnidarians too!
Corals are the "polyp" form and make bone-like structures that build reefs.
They have a symbiotic phytoplankton called
that photosynthesizes for them.
Some Jellies also have symbiotic algae
jellies video 11min.
Nematodes (Round Worms) & Rotifers:
2 Digestive openings and light sensing cells to detect if predators are approaching.

Rotifers - long video (7min)
Coral & Zooxantellae
Zooxanthellae & coral/clams/jellies
The Box Jelly (7 min)
Nematodes (4 min.)
Rotifer feeding (2 min.)
The Protostomes are all invertebrates and the Deuterostomes start forming internal skeletons.
There are 3 main groups on the Protostome side:
Snails and slugs
complex internal organs and major body systems including eyes & a brain.
Scrape food/algae off rocks with a radula, rough, tongue-like.
Molluscs (8.5 min.)
Similar to gastropods but have 8 shell plates on top.
2 Shells attached by a hinge.
Clams, mussels, oysters & scallops
Large foot that can help them dig/burrow
Siphon that sucks in water and plankton (filter feeders)
Bivalve Dissection (9 min.)
Mussels Feeding (1.20 min.)
"Head-Foot" with no shell
Highly advanced brain, eyes & nervous system.
Fast, intelligent, camouflage experts.
Squid, octopus, cuttlefish
octopus learning 4 min.
octopus & cuttlefish intelligence 7 min.
Indonesian mimic octopus 3 min.
Marine Reptiles - Chapter 9
The last group of Invertebrates that seem to have reverted back to a simpler body plan.
Animals with a Backbone:

Three Groups
Class Agnatha - Jawless Fish
Chapter 8

Class Chondrichthyes - Cartilage Fish
Sharks, Skates & Rays
Chapter 8

Class Osteichthyes - Bony Fish
28,000 species (largest class of vertebrates)
Chapter 8

2 openings for digestive system
segmented bodies, each segment has own set of organs including a heart.
brain & nervous system
asexual or sexual reproduction
christmas tree worm spawning (1 min.)
Annelids - 3 min.
Sponges - 13min.
Cnidarians 13min.
Mollusks Part 1 - 8 min.
Mollusks Part 2 - 10 min.
Body segments that include head, abdomen and thorax
jointed appendages (arms/legs)
More advanced nervous system including eyes
Marine Crustaceans Include:
crabs, shrimp, lobsters, krill & other zooplankton
Lobster Molting
Shrimp/Lobsers 5 min.
Crab Dissection 5min.
All crustaceans must shed their exoskeletons to grow. This is called molting.
Radial symmetry - 5 body sections
Tubefeet - Hair-like parts with suction cups on the bottom.

Sea stars
most have 5 arms, regeneration
mouth in center on bottom
eye-spots that sense light on the ends of each arm
stomach comes out to digest food (mussels are their favorite!)
Sea Cucumber
soft bodied, worm-like
Mouth parts pick up particles, waste exits the other end
Detritivores - "poop eaters"
Will barf up guts as defense against predators.
Sand Dollars & Sea Urchins
internal shell
spines for protection & movement
mouth on the bottom in the center
Internal teeth called aristotle's lantern in sea urchins used for grazing on kelp.
Sand dollars sand themselves up in the current to catch plankton.
sea star eating 2.5 min.
sea cucumber 2.21 min.
sand dollar moving
4 min. -->
sea urchins, sand dollars
and sea stars 3.50 min.
The link between invertebrates and vertebrates:
Chordates without a backbone.
"Sea squirts" have a nerve cord (spinal cord in us) but no backbone. All 3,000 species known are all marine organisms.
only lack a backbone
There are 4 fundamental characteristics of Vertebrates
Backbone (spine) made out of vertebrae
Nerve cord (spinal cord) protected by the vertebrae
Post-anal tail
Gill slits
Hagfish & Lampreys
hagfish 5.37 min.
Cartilage skeleton
No eyes or scales
Scraping tongue to burrow into prey
Lampreys 1.52 min.
Lampreys are freshwater species while Hagfish are marine
Shark importance to reefs 1.45 min.
Shark info.4.12 min.
Teeth are constantly replaced
Placoid Scales "Dermal Denticles"
Lateral line that can sense movement in the water (fish have this too).
Skates & Rays
Flat bodies, eyes on top
No teeth, vacuum-like mouth
Some are bottom dwellers some swim and filter our plankton (manta ray).

Cartilage skeletons
Good nervous system (can sense electrical currents using Ampullae of Lorenzini).
Predators & Filter Feeders
Placoid Scales
Lay eggs (oviparous) or live birth (viviparous) or eggs that hatch inside the mother (ovoviparous).
Whale Shark
plankton-eating shark
one of the largest (up to 40 ft. long) but doesn't have big teeth!
Whale sharks 2.21 min.
Manta Ray
(new sp.) 3.31 min.
Manta Rays
also filter-feeding plankton eater. Mostly pelagic (open ocean) species. Can have a wing span over 20 ft.!
Dangerous Sharks:
Great White, Bull, Tiger
Sting Rays 2.12 min.
Prehistoric fish that is still around today
More closely related to reptiles & mammals than to modern "ray-finned" fish.
Body Shape fits Habitat
Fast Swimmers - tuna
Bottom Dwellers - halibut
Vegetation Dwellers - eels
Slow Swimmers - sea horse
Fins and Mouth
General fin types are the same
Mouth shape indicates food source
Ray-Finned Fish:
Huge diversity
Cold-Blooded, lay eggs
All have calcified skeletons with many bones in fins.
Swim Bladder helps buoyancy
2-Chambered heart pumps blood
Gills pull oxygen out of the water
Scales protect & reduce drag in water
Anchovies swimming 10 sec.
Parrotfish feeding 34 sec.
Seahorse feeding 1 min.
Fin types 1.5min.
Caudal - forward motion
Pectoral - steering
Pelvic, Anal, Dorsal - stability
Pull oxygen out of the water
Transfer does not require energy because it's based on diffusion (the movement of a substance from high to low concentration)
How fish breath 1.12min.
Sountercurrent Exchange 3.43min.
Air-breathing (lungs)
Cold-blooded, ectothermic
Must warm up to metabolize food either by basking in the sun or muscle movement.
Tough skin and/or scales
Lay eggs on land!
Amniotic eggs - allow embryos to breath but not dry out on land.
Mosasaurs & Pleseisaurs
Prehistoric Marine Reptiles 200 - 65 million years ago.
The seven living species of sea turtles are:
Flatback sea turtle
Green sea turtle
Hawksbill sea turtle
Kemp’s Ridley sea turtle
Leatherback sea turtle
Loggerhead sea turtle
Olive Ridley sea turtle

Completely Pelagic = open ocean.
Only coming onto land to lay eggs.

Green Sea Turtle
Hardest Shell, 4ft. Long
Found in all tropical oceans
Travels long distances to lay eggs on their native beach.
Endangered due to fishing, pollution (plastics) and egg collection by humans
Flatback Sea Turtle
Population estimate is only around 10,000 - 20,000 nesting females
Breeds and nests only around Australia, but migrates to other areas.
Protected Species
Lays fewer eggs during a nesting event than any sea turtle species.

Hawksbill Sea Turtle
Small turtle (3ft.)
Hunted for beautiful shell
Named for sharp hawk-like beak.
Eats primarily sponges, squid, shrimp and anemones

Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle
Smallest sea turtle (2ft. Long)
Mass nesting during the day.
Nesting ground is a 12-½ mile stretch of beach in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas.
Most seriously endangered of all sea turtles
Total population of females is estimated to be around 2,500.

Leatherback Sea Turtle
Largest sea turtle (4-6 ft. long)
Only one with soft shell
Found everywhere except Antarctica
Feeds on jellyfish
Does not always lay eggs on native beach
Endangered due to hunting, egg collective, pollution and coastal development.

Loggerhead Sea Turtle
Largest hard-shelled sea turtle 3-4ft., 170-500 pounds!
Nest in Japan and feed off the coast of Mexico and the U.S.
Most abundant Pacific sea turtle

Olive Ridley Sea Turtle
2-2.5 ft. long
Most abundant sea turtle world-wide
Mass nest sites
Endangered species

Marine Iguana
Found only on the Galapagos Islands
Eat seaweed and algae underwater
Can hold their breath for 1/2 an hr.
Can dive up to 30 ft.
Sea Kraits
Highly Venomous
Lay eggs on land in nest
Must come onto land on a regular basis to drink fresh water.
Olive Sea Snake
Live their whole lives in the ocean
Even give birth to live young in the ocean, no need for nesting on land!

Sea Snakes
Saltwater Crocodiles
Largest living reptiles
Found throughout the Indio-Pacific & North Australia
May attack humans
Large Nests on land
Protect young by carrying them in mouth
Sea Turtle Nesting:
Moon & Tides cue egg laying & hatching.
Lay clutches of eggs under sand
All hatch together, helps ensure more will survive.
Threats to Sea Turtle Populations
Pollution - plastics & oil spils
Human interference & poaching
Human development of beaches
Loss of food sources
Conservation Efforts
Turtle tagging
Nest Protection
Egg hatching
Plastic Bag Ban!
2 min.
Countercurrent Exchange:
The flow of water is opposite the flow of blood which causes oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse down their concentration gradients from higher to lower concentrations.
Shark Dissection 6.5min.
Inside Nature's Giants 48min.
Naked Science - Shark Attacks 50min.
Phytoplankton &

Type of flowering
plant that lives is shallow, sandy seas and provides excellent habiat and food for young fish & other small animals.
Tropical salt-tolerant trees with high prop roots that create habitats for small fish and other organisms.
There are 3 main types:
Green, Brown & Red
Green Algae
Lives in shallow seas
"Tiny Plants"
All Photosynthetic
All Primary Producers (food)
All Require the Sun
All Produce Oxygen
"Tiny Animals"
All Heterotrophic
All Consumers (have to eat others)
All Consume Oxygen
All Produce Carbon Dioxide
"Tiny Drifters"
Mostly tiny, some are large (jellyfish)
All cannot swim against a current, they float and drift.
Drifting marine bacteria
Not all harmful
Some can be important food source
Plankton in Trouble!!!
Ocean Warming
Shifting currents & weather patterns
El Nino/La Nina
Amazing Plankton
Full transcript