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Cancer

PED237
by

C L

on 23 April 2014

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Transcript of Cancer

What is cancer?
CANCERS
Melanoma
What to look for?
The most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease.
Spots on the skin
Moles
ABCDE

Asymmetry
: One half of the mole is different from the other half.
Border irregularity
: The spot has borders which are not smooth and regular but uneven or notched.

Color
: The spot has several colors in an irregular pattern or is a very different color than the rest of your moles.
Diameter
: The spot is larger than the size of a pencil eraser.
Elevation

Screening
Self Test: BSE
Lung cancer
Screening test:
Annual screening with
low-dose computed tomography (LDCT)
for smokers and former smokers at high risk for developing lung cancer
Recommend to:
Age 55-74
Having smoked for 30 years or more, and either continuing to smoke or having quit within the past 15 years
Changing lifestyle or eating habits
Breast Cancer
Seek the shade, especially between
10 AM - 4 PM
.
Do not wait until sunburn.
Avoid tanning & UV tanning booths
.
Cover up with clothing, including a broad-brimmed hat and UV-blocking sunglasses.
Use a broad spectrum (UVA/UVB)
sunscreen
with an SPF of 15 or higher every day. For extended outdoor activity, use a water-resistant, broad spectrum (UVA/UVB)
sunscreen with an
SPF of 30 or higher
.
Apply 1 ounce (2 tablespoons) of sunscreen to your entire body
30 minutes
before going outside. Reapply
every two hours
or immediately after swimming or excessive sweating.
Keep newborns out of the sun.
Sunscreens should be used on babies over the age of six months
.
Examine your skin head-to-toe every month.
See your physician every year for a professional skin exam.
A cancer begins with an error, or mutation, in a cell’s DNA. Abnormal cells divide without control & are able to invade other tissues
References
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/commoncancers
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/breast-cancer/in-depth/breast-cancer/art-20045654
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/melanoma
http://www.medicinenet.com/melanoma/article.htm
http://www.cancer.org/
http://www.lungcancer.org/
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/basics/symptoms/con-20029597
overall prevention for cancer


Prevention
Prevention
*They could invade to other tissues
Tumor Stage and grade
Site
Size
Region (lymph node involvement/spread of the cancer)
Number (primary and/or metastasis)
Grade
Staging describes the extent or severity of a person’s cancer.

T : 0-4
N : 0-3
M : 0-1 metastasis
Biopsy
Grade 0 (Carcinoma in situ), 1 (well-differentiated) to 4 (undeifferentiated, spread to distant tissues or organs)
Tumor grade is the description of a tumor based on how abnormal the tumor cells and the tumor tissue look under a microscope. (differentiation)
Prostate Cancer
Diagnostic test: Bronchoscopy ->Biopsy
Different types: how the cells look under the microscope --> different treatment plans)


Annual screening is recommended for women age 40 or older

Find out your family history of any type of cancers, especially breast and ovarian cancers.
Anything that we breathe in can affect our health.
The most important risk factor for lung cancer is smoking tobacco. Nearly 87% of all lung cancers in the United States are smoking-related.
Other risk factors:
Asbestos
Radon
Industrial substances
Radiation exposure
Air pollution
Tuberculosis
Genetics
*Quit smoking*
13% of all new cancer
About 224,210 new cases of lung cancer (116,000 in men & 108,210 in women)
An estimated 159,260 deaths from lung cancer (86,930 in men&72,330 among women), accounting for about 27% of all cancer deaths (American Cancer Society, 2014)
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-non-smallcell/detailedguide/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-key-statistics
http://www.lungcancer.org/find_information/publications/163-lung_cancer_101/273-risks
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging
http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/melanoma
About 120,000 new cases of melanoma in the US are diagnosed in a year.

In 2010, about 68,130 of these were invasive melanomas, with about 38,870 in males and 29,260 in women.
1. Dietary changes (increase intake of phytonutrients)
Eat more cruciferous/cabbage-fanily vegetables
Eat more high-fiber foods
Eat foods with vitamin A
Include Vitamin C in your diet
Limit salt-cured, smoked, nitrite-cured foods
Drink tea especially green tea that contains polyphenols and reduce intake of high-sugar soda

2. Abstain from tobacco
3. Avoid excessive exposure to sun
4. Keep your drink in moderation
5. Maintain your healthy weight: BMI between 18.5 and 25
6. Be physically active for at least 30 minutes and avoid sitting on most days of the week

1. Cancer can be defined as

a. A process where by some cells invade and destroy the immune system
b. Uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells
c. The spread of benign tumors throughout the body
d. Interference of normal body functions through blood-flow disruption caused by angiogenesis
e. All are correct choices


2. Cancer treatment becomes more difficult when
a. Cancer cells metastasize
b. Angiogenesis is disrupted
c. A tumor is encapsulated
d. Cells are deficient in telomerase
e. Cell division has stopped

3. The leading cause of deaths from cancer in women is
a. Lung cancer
b. Breast cancer
c. Ovarian cancer
d. Skin cancer
e. Endometrial cancer


4. Cancer
a. Is primarily a preventable disease
b. Is often related to tobacco use
c. Has been linked to dietary habits
d. Risk increases with obesity
e. All are correct choices


5. About 60 percent of cancers are related to
a. Genetics
b. Environmental pollutants
c. Viruses and other biological agents
d. Ultraviolet radiation
e. Diet, obesity, and tobacco use
Pre-test: assess your knowledge
6. A cancer-prevention diet should include
a. Ample amounts of fruits and vegetables
b. Cruciferous vegetables
c. Phytonutrients
d. Soy products
e. All of the above
7. The biggest carcinogenic exposure in the workplace is to

a. Asbestos fibers
b. Cigarette smoke
c. Biological agents
d. Nitrosamines
e. Pesticides
8. Which of the following is not a warning signal for cancer
a. Change in bowel or bladder habits
b. Nagging cough or hoarseness
c. A sore that doesn’t heal
d. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
e. All of the above are warning signals for cancer
9. The risk for breast cancer is higher in

a. Women with more than one family member with a history of breast cancer
b. Minority groups than white women
c. Women who had children prior to age 30
d. A women under age 50
e. All of the above groups
10. The risk for prostate cancer can be decreased by
a. Consuming selenium-rich foods
b. Adding fatty fish to the diet
c. Avoiding a high-fat diet
d. Including tomato-rich foods in the diet
e. All of the above

http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/melanoma/melanoma-prevention-guidelines
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/breast
New cases: 232,670 (female); 2,360 (male)
Deaths: 40,000 (female); 430 (male)
Follow a guide line and repeat every month:
Female: best on the 10th day after your period every month.
Male: pick a day of a month & continue with every month.



You are checking for any changes in your breast....
a lump, breast pain, thickening of the skin of the breast, nipple discharge, or a change in breast size or shape
Mammogram: an x-ray picture of the breast.
New cases: 233,000
Deaths: 29,480
Prevention
Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test
measures the blood level of PSA, a protein that is produced by the prostate gland
could be benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
Recommended for men at age 50 annually
Family history*
*Self test*
Early prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. Some advanced prostate cancers can slow or weaken your urinary stream or make you need to urinate more often
Signs & symptom can include...

Trouble urinating
Blood in the urine
Blood in the semen
Erectile dysfunction
Bone pain
Discomfort in the pelvic area
General pain in the lower back, hips or thighs

It is rare, and it is the most aggressive form of breast cancer.
It accounts for only 1% to 5% of all invasive breast cancers. However, the five-year overall survival rate is 40%, compared to nearly 90% for all other types of breast cancer combined.
Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Screening test:
How can I lower my risk?
Questions?
Dr. Meschino:
70-90% of all cancers are caused by faulty diet and lifestyle
x Smoking
x Alcohol consumption
Professor Emery: Man made it, don't eat it!
Antioxidant
*Food alone is not the grantee. Other healthy lifestyle choices are essential! *
Symptoms
Any different and unexplained?
Angiogenesis
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels
Tanning bed? Nonono
Malignant melanoma
Melanoma kills an estimated 8,790 people in the US annually.
The risk of melanoma increases with age – the average age at the time it is found is 61. But melanoma is not uncommon even among those younger than 30. In fact, it is one of the most common cancers in young adults
How to Recognize Breast Cancer Symptoms?
Gender
Age
Babies
Race & ethnicity
Dense breast tissue
Family history/ Genetic : BRCA 1 ,2
Hormone therapy/ birth control
Remember: Psychological health is important for Physical health
Stay happy!!!
http://www.everydayhealth.com/stop-smoking/0315/the-scary-side-of-smoking-grim-new-antismoking-ads-from-the-cdc.aspx
Full transcript