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Copy of How to speak with an Accent

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carole brumley

on 28 February 2011

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Transcript of Copy of How to speak with an Accent


Instructions.1.1
Pick a country. Great Britain is an island nation composed of three parts: England, Scotland, and Wales. Once you decide which country you'd like to concentrate on, you can take the next step.

2.2
Watch British television. If you subscribe to cable, you can have access to such channels as the British Broadcasting Channel (BBC) and learn to affect the accents you hear.

3.3
Pronounce your t's. Americans tend to be lazy when it comes to enunciating this letter so doing this can make a big difference in your ability to talk with a British accent. Say "duty" with a hard "t" sound rather than pronouncing it like "doody."

4.4
Be careful with "u." Pronounce this as you would in the word "you" rather than "stupid." Thus, "duty" sounds like "dyuty" instead of "doody."

5.5
Enunciate well. People sometimes describe the British accent as "proper" because it sounds so clean and crisp. When speaking, enunciate each consonant clearly, especially those on the end. For example, instead of saying "I wan it" as many Americans tend to do, place special emphasis on those "t" sounds.

6.6
Leave out the "r." British people pronounce the "r" if it is in the middle of a word, but not if it lands somewhere toward the end. Hence, "car" becomes "cah" and "park" becomes "pahk," but remember to pronounce "promise" and "borrow" almost as you would normally.



Read more: How to Talk With a British Accent | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_2067545_talk-british-accent.html#ixzz1EnW6o1Lw French Accent German Accent Russian Scottish Aussie Spanish Irish Southern Indian Holly
Peter British Accent Kolin Arabic Familiarize yourself with Scottish slang and vocabulary. Always use the word "wee" when describing something small or young. "Aye," "bonny" and "lassie" are also commonly used and makes your accent seem authentic. Pick up a book of words that are distinctive to the Scottish dialect.
2
Learn to roll your Rs. Scots are the only English speakers to employ the rolled R sound and do it regularly, particularly following the letters D, G and T.
3
Pay attention to your vowels. Analyses have shown that Scottish English speakers use five fewer vowel sounds than any other English speakers. Use the shortened version of vowels. The words "cot" and "caught" should sound the same. Pronounce E as though it has been cut off in the middle, creating an "eh" sound. Use only one form of the letter I, so everything rhymes with "might."
4
Collapse words into as few syllables as possible and drop the G from words ending in "-ing." Replace "not" with "nee." When you are speaking with a Scottish accent, tell someone that you "didnee do anythin' in Ednbrah" instead of saying you "didn't do anything in Edinburgh."


Read more: How to Talk with a Scottish Accent | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_2081077_talk-scottish-accent.html#ixzz1EuaBKppR 1.Speak from the throat. One of the most basic ways to think about how a language sounds is to think about what part of the mouth and throat people use to produce that language's words. While English sounds come from the mouth and nose-leading Middle Easterners to think that English sounds nasal-Middle Eastern, or Semitic, languages speak with the throat. Try pushing sounds out from your throat rather than your mouth to begin speaking with a Middle Eastern accent.
2.Get rid of your "th." One thing common to Middle Eastern speech is that it does not produce a "th" sound, as in the word "through." The result is that Middle Easterners, even ones who speak very good English, stumble over the "th," if they can produce it at all. So, to speak with a Middle Eastern accent, make your "th" into a hard "t" or into an "s" sound.
3.Leave the "h" out. Ask a Middle Eastern if they are happy and they will probably respond that, yes, they are very "appy." The sound structures of Semitic languages uses a throaty mixture between a "ch" and a "j" sound instead of the breathy "h" that English uses. So, when you get to words like "house" and "happy," drop the "h" and say the word from the next letter.
4.Forget the "w." Like the "th" and the "h" sounds, Middle Eastern speech generally lacks a "w" sound. So, when someone asks you what you would like to drink, tell them that you'd like a "viskey," not a "whiskey." Also, as you blur your "h," "w" and "th" sounds, be sure to add plenty of "eh" or "uh" sounds to slow yourself down and make it seem like you're really contemplating your word choice and sentence structure. Nick Michael & Daniel Logan Theres Dylan
1.Speak from the throat. One of the most basic ways to think about how a language sounds is to think about what part of the mouth and throat people use to produce that language's words. While English sounds come from the mouth and nose-leading Middle Easterners to think that English sounds nasal-Middle Eastern, or Semitic, languages speak with the throat. Try pushing sounds out from your throat rather than your mouth to begin speaking with a Middle Eastern accent.
2.Get rid of your "th." One thing common to Middle Eastern speech is that it does not produce a "th" sound, as in the word "through." The result is that Middle Easterners, even ones who speak very good English, stumble over the "th," if they can produce it at all. So, to speak with a Middle Eastern accent, make your "th" into a hard "t" or into an "s" sound.
3.Leave the "h" out. Ask a Middle Eastern if they are happy and they will probably respond that, yes, they are very "appy." The sound structures of Semitic languages uses a throaty mixture between a "ch" and a "j" sound instead of the breathy "h" that English uses. So, when you get to words like "house" and "happy," drop the "h" and say the word from the next letter.
4.Forget the "w." Like the "th" and the "h" sounds, Middle Eastern speech generally lacks a "w" sound. So, when someone asks you what you would like to drink, tell them that you'd like a "viskey," not a "whiskey." Also, as you blur your "h," "w" and "th" sounds, be sure to add plenty of "eh" or "uh" sounds to slow yourself down and make it seem like you're really contemplating your word choice and sentence structure. Daniel: Familiarize yourself with Scottish slang and vocabulary. Always use the word "wee" when describing something small or young. "Aye," "bonny" and "lassie" are also commonly used and makes your accent seem authentic. Pick up a book of words that are distinctive to the Scottish dialect.
2
Learn to roll your Rs. Scots are the only English speakers to employ the rolled R sound and do it regularly, particularly following the letters D, G and T.
3
Pay attention to your vowels. Analyses have shown that Scottish English speakers use five fewer vowel sounds than any other English speakers. Use the shortened version of vowels. The words "cot" and "caught" should sound the same. Pronounce E as though it has been cut off in the middle, creating an "eh" sound. Use only one form of the letter I, so everything rhymes with "might."
4
Collapse words into as few syllables as possible and drop the G from words ending in "-ing." Replace "not" with "nee." When you are speaking with a Scottish accent, tell someone that you "didnee do anythin' in Ednbrah" instead of saying you "didn't do anything in Edinburgh."
5
Listen to Scottish accents. Watch Scottish films like "Trainspotting" or films that prominently feature Scottish actors using their native accent. Sean Connery, Ewan McGregor, Billy Boyd and John Hannah are distinctly Scottish. Understand that all British accents (barring those from the West Country, Liverpool and parts of Scotland) lack a rhotic r; i.e. don't roll your "r"s and that not all British Accents are the same; a Scottish accent varies greatly from an English accent, but are both British.

Step 2

Know that some British accents may be that the 'T's are not pronounced and that the u in stupid and duty is pronounced with the y sound, not oo as in an American accent; thus it is pronounced stewpid, not stoopid, etc. The standard English accent, the a (for example in father) is pronounced aah, not like a like apple.

Step 3

Pronounce that T as T, and not an American D. (Duty is pronounced Dyuty or condensed slightly to Jooty; not doody).

Step 4

Pronounce the suffix -ing with the g, so it sounds like -ing rather than -een. But sometimes it is shortened to in as in lookin.



Applying the two steps above, the words human being are pronounced h-yuman being rather than yooman been.
Step 5

Sometimes 'T's aren't pronounced at all, especially in words with two 'T's grouped together (this is known as the glottal stop, and is common in American English pronunciation).

Step 6

Sometimes the 'H' is not pronounced, in some accents.

Step 7

Realise that some words require the ee sound to be pronounced as ee, such as in the word been. In an American accent, this is often pronounced bin. In an English Accent, this may be pronounced been, a homophone of bean; or just as "bin", depending on where you go.

Step 8

Stop using all of your American slang and replace it with British slang. Understand British Terms.



See more: How To Speak in a British Accent | Guide (8 Steps) « Wonder How To http://www.wonderhowto.com/how-to-speak-british-accent-094967/#ixzz1Eqa9Do8O • 1Think about the way you speak. If you analyze how you use your words, you will be better equipped to change things about the way you speak later.
• 2
Soften your vowels. Americans have a tendency to harden the sounds of their vowels, as in the long sound of vowels when they are followed by another vowel. To speak with an Irish accent, you will need to soften the sound of your vowels. For instance, the letter A when pronounced by Americans is phonetically "aye." However, someone with an Irish accent would pronounce the letter "ah."
• 3
Focus on your consonants. To pull off any European accent you need to enunciate better. The first rule in enunciation is to focus hard on your consonant sounds. Instead of softening your consonants, like you would for a vowel, you want to harden the sound.
• 4
Make your speech more musical. To have a convincing Irish accent, you cannot have a deadpan American delivery. When an Irish person speaks there is a tone and inflection in their voice that is musical. Watch a few movies and listen for the vocal patterns.
• 5
Practice. The more you try to mimic an Irish accent, the better you will get at it.
Talk to Australian natives or watch Australian films. Listen closely to the dialogue to get a general idea of how Australians speak. First practice pronouncing individual words. Mimic entire lines to familiarize yourself with Australian speech patterns.
2
Learn to speak from the back of your tongue while limiting the movement of your lips. Hold the tip of your tongue as close to the roof of your mouth as possible while pressing the middle of your tongue down.
3
Pay attention to the pronunciation of individual letters. Vowel pronunciation is the most significant difference between American, British and Australian English. Elongate your vowels ("Eel-oon-gayte uur vowls"). Note that words ending with "ay" sound are pronounced "ie." Practice "to-die" so you will be ready tomorrow.
4
Speak quickly so the words run together. End sentences with an upward intonation. Make every comment sound like a question.
5
Shorten or abbreviate words and add an "o" to the end. Afternoon becomes "arvo" and business becomes "bizzo."
6
Study Australian slang. Consult an American-Australian Dictionary to increase your vocabulary. Australians use many words common to British English, such as "lift" instead of "elevator." Learn the preferred word choice to sound authentic.


Read more: How to Talk with an Australian Accent | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_2073832_talk-australian-accent.html#ixzz1EuUqtZLO Here's how to speak English and sound like a real German in seven essential steps:

1 The German R is pronounced the same way as the French R (so if you're familiar with French you already know this one). For native English speakers, this can be a tough one. Think of it like this: Imagine you have a hair stuck in the back of your throat and you're trying to get it out. How would you sound? Hrrr, hrrr, hrrr. That's a sharp, "aggressive" sound, so you need to take away the "H" in front, to make the R soft-sounding. It will sound almost like gargling. If you know how Spaniards pronounce J, you're onto something. Not the Mexican way of saying J, which is almost the like an English H sound. The Spanish J is too harsh and sharp though, so remember to soften it.

2 D's will usually sound like T's. "Drinking and dancing can be hard on your credit card" becomes "Trinking and tancing can be hart on your credit cart". Notice that the first D in "credit card" is pronounced wih a T. Germans do use the letter D and pronounce it just as one would in English, but many of the words that start or end in a D in English will start or end with a T in german. The German way of saying "to drink" is "zu trinken".

3 U is difficult because there are several ways to pronounce it in English. Because of that, Germans learn to emulate the sound of a word, not how to pronounce particular letters (since they vary anyway). U's that almost sound like A's in English, such as in "uncle" become AH sounds in German - "Ahncle". U's that sound like "yew" in English become "yoo" in German.Let's look at an example: "I understand that Ukraine is an underdeveloped country". Think about it. Doesn't the U in "understand" sound different from the U in "Ukraine"? In German, the sentence would sound like this: "I ahnderstand zat Yookraine is an ahnderdeveloped cahntry".

4 The TH-sounds. When you think about it, there are two TH-sounds in English: The TH in "there" or "though" is soft, while the TH in "with" or "think" is more sharp. Make sure you understand this difference in English. Germans have problems with both TH-sounds.The soft TH is pronounced like a Z ("I don't want to do zat zough"). The sharp TH is simplified to more or less just a T ( I tink zis is a torough explanation).

5 W, in German, is pronounced exactly like the English V. This means that if you want to say "Where, what and when" and at the same time sound like a German, you would have to say "Vere, vat and ven". Conversely, when words do begin with a V in English, many Germans will get it mixed up and pronounce it as if it were spelt with a W (unless of course they pronounce it like an F). It's not uncommon to hear a German refer to a VHS as a "Wideo cassette".

6 V is pronounced exactly like the English F. So if you want to sound like a German speaking English, instead of saying "In Venice you can see vast amounts of venerable buildings", try saying "In Fenice you can see fast amounts of fenerable buildings"

7 Germans have a problem with certain A's. In English, A is pronounced differently, depending on context. The sound of an A in "after", "cat" or "flashy" is different from the A-sound in "falling", "ball" or "stall"", right? The A's in the first three word (after, cat and flashy) would be replaced with an E-sound and become "efter", "ket" and "fleshy". The A's in the second three words (falling, ball, stall) would be replaced with a British English/New York accent AW (not the general American AH-sound).

Master these seven elements and you're well on your way to doing a great German impression.

Christian Henrik Nesheim Usually, when people learn to speak a second language, they use the sounds and pronunciation rules (and often grammar) of their native language. This is what gives them an accent. They are not aware of the British set of “speech rules”. That’s because they were never taught this in school. Their teachers probably were not native English speakers and they were not aware of such things.

This can be a big problem because speaking with a heavy accent can lead to misunderstanding. A strong foreign accent can affect job prospects. However , by acquiring a better British accent people can have better communication with potential employers, clients, colleagues and staff.

There are many schools and classes which teach English all around the world. However, most of them are focused on word lists and grammar rules. Very few of them address the “speech rules”. This is because many of the teachers are not native English speakers and they simply do not know of these “speech rules”. Many of them are even making errors themselves, speaking with a strong regional accent and teaching all of those things to you!

One more big problem – most English schools teach written English. The students are “studying English” instead of listening and speaking. That’s a real disaster. The students are not prepared for real speech in the real world. They can do very well at English tests, but they can’t understand native speakers with their native English accents, and the native speakers can not understand them.

If you are often asked to repeat yourself when you speak English, then you definitely need to improve your British accent. It is not only a question of the pronunciation of different sounds, but also of speech melody and word connections.

When children learned their first language, they constructed a mental inventory of their native language’s speech sounds. Those sounds became a part of their speech. When they are learning a second language, they insert these speech sounds into the new language, in our case into English. Now, when they speak English, they reach into that inventory and come out with many substitute sounds. Some of them are close, but actually incorrect. These repeated errors in conversation with native speakers often cause them to be misunderstood.

How to learn a British accent? In order to master an English accent you must first immerse yourself in audio training by listening to the native speaker and doing repeating exercises many times.

1The "r" sound. The first and most important part of a fake French accent is the "r." When you say, for instance, "Rat," you would push your tongue to the back of your throat as if pronouncing a "g" sound. Your "r" will turn out to be a rolled/groaned "rgr".
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It is important to relax the soft part of the back of your mouth as well as the tip of your tongue a bit. When you try to force air between your tongue and the back of your palate, expect to hear the sickly sound of loose flesh flapping away.
Another way to create an authentic French "r" sound is to replace the "r" with an English "h" sound, but try to really rough it up, almost gargling as you make the "h" sound.
In words where the "r" is hard to pronounce, it may sound non-rhotic altogether. For example, "carpenter" can sound like "cahpentergr".
2Sustained "e"s. Next, when you say your "e"s, you will make it as long as possible. Example: "recorder" can sound completely transformed as "rgreh-caw-der".
3Morphed "i"s. When you say a short "i" sound, you turn it into something more like an "ee". For example, "fish" will sound more like "feesh", but do not make it any longer than you would "fish".
4Equal stressing. In French, each syllable has about equal stress (DA-DA-DA-DUM), as opposed to English which tends to be iambic (stress comes second, Da-DUM-da-DUM). So it's good to think a little trochaic to counteract the English tendency (stress comes first, DUM-da-DUM-dum). So instead of "po-[lice]' de-[part]'-ment", think "[poe]'-leece [dee]'-part-[men]'".
5"Th" to "dz". The "th"s in words are spoken as a "z." And if you want to be really accurate, shoot for a "dz" sound, like "dzees" for "this".
6Stressing the last syllable. In French, always stress the last syllable of a sentence or before you pause with a rising pitch as if asking a question. (E.g. "I am from New York(?).")
7Euh. Be sure to throw in lots of gratuitous "euh"s. "Euh" in French is the equivalent of "Ummm" or "Ah..." in English, a place-holder sound people make when they are thinking about what they are going to say next. It is pronounced more or less as it is written here. Hold on to you your "euuhhhhhh" as long as you can and try to start every sentence with at least one good "euuhhhhhhhhhh". (Never ever say "Ummm" or "Ah..." when speaking or faking French!)
To better pronounce "euh", start off with an "eh" sound (like in "bed") and slowly slide your way towards the "oh" sound (like in "so") BUT do not ever get there! You must end on a sound about halfway between, but make no hint at the "oh" sound.
8Now, practice practice practice! The more you work on it, the better your accent gets!
Minor lilt extension. One vowel turns into two.
Bill → beehill
Foot → foo-at
Calm → cah-alm
Bed → be-od

Major extension. One vowel sound turns into three, adding a consonant (a "w" or a "ye" sound) in the middle of two vowels.
Short → showat
Glass → glayus
laugh → layuf

Reverse lilt extension. In parts of the South (but not in northern Louisiana), some vowels are doubled with a lilt, but with an extension that comes before the original vowel. To me that sounds more like how Australians sometimes treat their vowels.
Face → fuh-ace
Nation → nuh-ation
Great → gu-reat
Meat → muheat

The R drop
In many words, the R disappears:
Bird → buhd

In some parts of the South, the R almost turns into a Y:
Thirsty → thi-y-sty
Hair → heya
Your → yua.
This is not a feature in northern Louisiana, where some speakers turn "your" into "yoh".

T to D, T to N. This is found in most parts of the United States.
Brittish → Bridish
Twenty → Twenny

Resonance
David Stern explains that a major feature of accents is the part of the mouth where "the energy is focused". In general American speech, he says, this "energy focus" takes place in the middle of the mouth. In some types of Suthern, he claims, the focus is either more forward in the mouth or more back. This concept is hard to convey in words, but it is fun to hear on track 4 of Stern's tape.


Even More Features of Southern Accents
Pens and Pins. In much of the South, these two words are pronounced the same… and pans are not far behind. This reminds me of "The Great New Zealand Vowel," an ironic phrase some Australians use to describe a similar feature in the speech of New Zealanders, whose vowels supposedly all merge into one. It also reminds me of the neutral vowel phoneticians call "schwa"—also written "shwa" and sometimes represented with the "@" symbol.

Poor and Pour. Another example of vowel merger. If you don't have a lot of money, people may think you're pore.

Feel and Fill. In some parts, these are reversed: "I fill good," "Please feel up the tank."

Tawk. This is probably another example of what Stern calls a lilt extension. The vowel in words like "talk" often turns into two, somewhere between tah-ook and tawk.

Hold Your Consonants
When words have too many hard consonants in a row, Suthern often has a practical and charming way of breaking them up with a vowel, or of simply ignoring one of the consonants. Here are a few examples taken from HTSS:

Costs→Costes
Nuclear→Nucular
Introduce→Innerduce
Arthritis→Arthuritis
Prettiest→Purtiest

The Ree-sahcle Been Bee-hahnd the Dees-play
(The recycle bin behind the display). Many words are stressed on the first syllable instead of the second as in other parts of the country. The most famous example is the Poh-leece, a law enforcement agency often seen on the Tee-Vee, and not just in Dee-troit.

Other examples: In-surance, Ad-ress, Ce-ment.

Pecans are in the "undecided" category. Depending on where you are in the South, it can be pronounced anywhere between "Pee-kin" (stress upfront) and "puh-Kahn" (stress last).

Not to Be
When Southerners talk about you, the verb "to be" is often dropped. "You from here? You interested?"

Getting More "Done"
I like the sound of "done". Lucky for me, there is more of it in the South.
- It can be used for emphasis: "I done told you twice."
- It can advantageously replace "did": "Forget it, I done it myself."
- It can mean "already": "I done had dinner."
Note that these uses of "done" would be more likely to crop up in a remote garage than at a dinner party.

Y'all
The plural of you. Even though I like "y'all," I have already given my love to an Australian word that serves the same purpose (when there is more than one "you"): "You's" (pronounced Use). The simple addition of the S makes "You's" both logical and compact. Compact is always good in Australia, where, when you speak, it's best to open your mouth as little as possible in order to keep flies out.

Fixin and the lost G
In the South, when one is "fixin" to do something, it means that one is about to do it: "I'm fixin to go into mah office." Yet, as in other parts of the States, "fix" can also mean "prepare": "She's fixin dinner". Sometimes, "fix" can even mean "repair"! This phrase has it all:

"I'm fixin to fix the stove so that you can fix supper." (I'm about to repair the stove so that you can prepare dinner.)

"Fixin" is an example of a Suthern grammar rule: dropping the G in all gerund forms, as in "learnin", "eatin", "workin" and so on.

Might Could
This is a feature of Suthern I relish. It is called "modal stacking" or "double modals", and it is a conjugating technique I find exceptionally effective—and elegant too. Here are examples.

"You might should call her about that."
"I might could write him a letter.
"I used to could do that."

Other Nice Verbs
Here are other Suthern verbal constructions I like.

It don't differ to me→I don't care.
I got a mind to take a vacation→I'm thinking about it.
I'm not about to go to work for a bank→You'll never see me doing that.
I got shed of my old TV→I got rid of it.
Would you cut on the light?→Would you turn it on?
I'm standing in need of an explanation→I need one.
You best not open your mouth→I advise you not to.
I disremembered→I couldn't recall.
I cain't→I cannot.

Other Nice Nouns
Lagniappe (or Lanyap): the extra item a merchant sometimes gives you, or the extra bit of work someone throws in as a bonus when they're happy with a transaction.

A one-horse town: a pretty small town.

A weed bender: someone from a rural area. Similar to Australia's "banana benders" in reference to the inhabitants of Queensland.

Strawberry friend: someone who only shows up when you have something to share.

Izzard: the letter Z. (I'm still looking for someone to confirm that one.)

Other Nice Adjectives
The least one: the smallest.

Dad gone (or perhaps "dad gum"): a way of not saying "goddamn".


A few more words
Library→Lie-berry
Here→Hair
Wish→Wush
Oven→Oben
New Orleans→Nawlins
Yours, ours→Yourn, Ourn


Expressions
In this section, I am trying to collect a few colorful and effective sayings.

Dad burn it! : a polite rendition of "God damn it".

That dog won't hunt: This is not going to work.

He's all hat and no cattle: About someone who's more talk than substance.

He couldn't manage his way out of a paper bag: He's incompetent.

Hold your potato: Be patient.

Cut your own weeds: Mind your own business.

In all my born days, I haven't seen such a thing: Not in my entire life.

You think I was born on crazy creek?: You think I'm stupid?

He chews his own tobacco: He's independent.

That ain't fitting: That's not the way nice people behave.

I gave him a piece of my mind: I let him have it.

He's in a bad way: He's very ill.

He could talk a cat out of a tree: He's persuasive.

That's in my behind: It already happened.


Southern Lexicon
There are excellent books and lists that try to phonetically reproduce how words are pronounced in the South. For instance, "fowar" for "four". The entries usually come with humorous definitions, for instance:

Fowar. The number of fingers on your hand if you lose your thumb.

Beyond the smile these word lists can provide, they are of great help in training the ear. In the next section, I review these "Suthern dictionaries" and link to word lists I have found online. Just below, as the chance arises, I will add a few other words that come to my ear.

Ahma: expresses intention, as in "Ahma tell him that." Until I came to Louisiana, I was used to another contraction—"Amana" ("Amana tell him that")—but the people here are ingenious and found an even more efficient way to express their intentions.

Hooaah? A sound made to inquire into causes or motives. "Hooaah did you do that?" Why learn Suthern? The best answer to "Why" might be in the "why" itself.


Review of Books about Southern Talk
The Complete How to Speak Southern, by Steve Mitchell. Highly recommended. This is a one-volume edition of two earlier books, How to Speak Southern and More How to Speak Southern. The author grew up in North Carolina. This book will make you laugh, but not at the expense of the people of the South. It's a collection of words and humorous definitions. The "words" are phonetic transcriptions of how Southern people supposedly speak. This sounds silly, but I learned much from this approach. These sample entries will give you a flavor:

Ah: The things you see with, and the personal pronoun denoting individuality. "Ah think Ah've got somethin' in mah ah."

Awl: An amber fluid used to lubricate engines. "Ah like that car, but it sure does use a lot of awl."

Ay-rab: The desert people who inhabit much of North Africa. [Andy's note: actually, the Arabian peninsula is not in North Africa ]

Co-Cola: The soft drink that started in Etlanna and conquered the world. "Ah hear they even sell Co-cola in Russia."

Clone: A type of scent men put on themselves.

Dawg: A four-legged animal much esteemed in rural sections of the South.

Drank: To consume a liquid. "You want a drank of this Co-cola?"

Eyetalyun: A native of Italy or an American ethnic group of that heritage.

Farn: Anything that is not domestic. "Ah don't drink no farn liquor, specially Rooshin vodka."

Ka-yun: A sealed cylinder containing food. "If that woman didn't have a ka-yun opener, her family would starve to death."

Peyun: A writing instrument. "Some rob you with a six-gun, and some with a fountain peyun."

Sebmup: Soft drink similar to ginger ale. "You want a Co-cola or a Sebmup?"

Thang: A word Yankees consistently mispronounce as "Theeng."

Uhmurkin: Someone who lives in the United States of Uhmurka.

I would love to could go on, but I don't want to cross the line of fair use, so I just recommend you order this little book. Before you receive it, here are a few more entries. See if you can guess their meaning:

Ahr, aig, ails, awf, awfis, awfullest, bard, baws, bleeve, cayut, crine, crawss, daints, everhoo, everthang, fawn, gawn, git, gull, kumpny, lar, lawst, mahty raht, muchablige, munts, own, ownliest, phrasin, pitcher, prolly, quare, raffle, ratcheer, retard, sawt, sayul, shovelay, show, spearmint, tal, tamarr, tarred, tewsdee, thank, troll, vaymuch, wender, winsheel.

The Dixie Dictionary, by Thomas Howard. More recent (2002) than How to Speak Southern (1976), with about six times as many entries, and yet a distant number two. Why? You can read HTSS from cover to cover because it's funny. While the Dixie Dictionary tries to copy the HTSS style of humor here and there, it is mostly a list of entries, just one notch up from the phone book. Besides, I have checked a number of entries with Louisiana locals, and many of them are not in use in that region. The introduction is excellent, as is the biography.

You All Spoken Here, by Roy Wilder, Jr. After I received this book, one month slipped by before I started to study it, partly because the title made no sense to me. Then one day I said "Okay, what could this possibly mean?" Then it dawned on me that the title is a play on signs you sometimes see the shop windows of tourist areas, such as "German Spoken Here". Aha! "You All Spoken Here" means "Here we speak ‘You all’", in other words, "Here we Speak Southern". Yes, I'm a bit slow, so for me the title is awful. What about the subtitle? "Prepared for the edification & jollification of readers, writers, browsers, dialectitians, linguists, folklorists, etc., and for visitors from foreign parts who need to parlez-vous in cornpone country." Whether that's cute or pompous is a matter of taste—too many curlycues for mine. Between the covers, the book is rife with Southern idioms. Many are a delight to read. Sadly, many of those I sampled did not pass the "real deal" test in Louisiana. Some of the expressions in the book may be widespread in parts of the South. Others, one wonders, might be the vivid manner of speech of the many people who were called upon to contribute. Worth having if you'd like to inject color into your language, otherwise stick with HTSS.

Jeff Foxworthy's Redneck Dictionary: Words You Thought You Knew the Meaning Of. When I ordered this book, I waden sure what to expect. The word "redneck" in the title made we worry that the book might take cheap shots at the wonderful people of the South. As it turns out, this book is not so much offensive as it is useless—at least for the purpose of learning to tawk Suthern. Whilst Mitchell's excellent book gives a phonetic spelling for words pronounced in Suthern, e.g. "awl" for "oil", along with a humorous definition (a pattern followed by this site and others that you will find in the links section), Foxworthy goes one step further and tries to match the everyday pronunciation of phrases to existing words in the English language. For instance,

Classified: pertaining to regret over a course at school. "I'd have gone to classified been smarter."

Whether one finds this entry funny is a personal matter, but in learning to tawk Suthern it's certainly no help. First, when an entry that's an actual word in the English language ("classified") represents other words in the English language ("class if I'd"), your brain has to twist and turn in rather unpleasant ways just to make sense of the definition. Second, phrases like this sample are not particularly representative of southern talk—people talk like that in most of the States. In the South, "I'd have gone to class if I'd been smarter" might sound more like this:

"Ahda gonda clayas if ahda bin smarter".

No "classified" here. To Foxworthy's defense, his book does not purport to be an instructional on Suthern tawk.


Audio Courses to Sound Southern
Acting with an Accent: American Southern, by David Alan Stern. A free download link to an audio method. How legal is this? I don't know. If the site gets taken down, you can get the CD on Amazon.

The author is not a native Southern speaker, and his attempts can make you cringe. Yet, even though Stern's accent is not always on target, he helps you learn by pointing out the accents' components.

The same website has a download link for another of Stern's audio methods, this time for the Texan accent. And here is the same audiobook on Amazon. I enjoyed this tape more than the previous one (American Southern) as David Stern's accents sound a lot more convincing here. And he covers a smaller region, so he is more focused. Even within that smaller region (Texas), David Stern manages to cover four local variations which are fun to hear.

US Southern accent, by Bob and Claire Corff. I have not yet had a chance to hear this.

Southern Accent Links
Southern American English. This excellent Wikipedia article has much detail about the features of Suthern and its main dialect zones.

The Strictly Southern website has a small humorous "Southern dictionary", as well as a longer list of words excerpted from Steve Mitchell's More How To Speak Southern.

Hah Tu Spek Suthun. Another excerpt from a Steve Mitchell book, this time the original How To Speak Southern.

A Glossary of Quaint Southernisms. Yet another humorous Southernese lexicon. And another.

Ehow has several short pieces on the topic, among which this one and that one are in my opinion the best.

Wishing you success in your journey with Suthern!!!

Speaking in a Scottish accent might seem like a fun thing to do, but if you need to learn it in order to fit in with your new environment, or maybe you must learn it for a part in a play. Whatever the reason, the first thing to understand is that there are many Scottish accents. In fact, a person from one part of Scotland might have difficulty understanding a fellow countryman from another area. The city accents are quite different from the more rural accents, which generally seem softer and less pronounced.

Read more: How to Learn the Scottish Accent | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_7724727_learn-scottish-accent.html#ixzz1EuXz2wM8 Speaking in a Scottish accent might seem like a fun thing to do, but if you need to learn it in order to fit in with your new environment, or maybe you must learn it for a part in a play. Whatever the reason, the first thing to understand is that there are many Scottish accents. In fact, a person from one part of Scotland might have difficulty understanding a fellow countryman from another area. The city accents are quite different from the more rural accents, which generally seem softer and less pronounced.

Read more: How to Learn the Scottish Accent | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_7724727_learn-scottish-accent.html#ixzz1EuXz2wM8 Speaking in a Scottish accent might seem like a fun thing to do, but if you need to learn it in order to fit in with your new environment, or maybe you must learn it for a part in a play. Whatever the reason, the first thing to understand is that there are many Scottish accents. In fact, a person from one part of Scotland might have difficulty understanding a fellow countryman from another area. The city accents are quite different from the more rural accents, which generally seem softer and less pronounced.

Read more: How to Learn the Scottish Accent | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_7724727_learn-scottish-accent.html#ixzz1EuXz2wM8 The speech of the middle classes in Scotland tends to conform to the grammatical norms of the written standard, particularly in situations that are regarded as formal. Highland English is slightly different from the variety spoken in the Lowlands in that it is more phonologically, grammatically, and lexically influenced by a Gaelic substratum.
While pronunciation features vary among speakers (depending on region and social status), there are a number of phonological aspects characteristic of Scottish English:
Scottish English is a rhotic accent, meaning /r/ is pronounced in the syllable coda. As with Received Pronunciation, /r/ may be an alveolar approximant [ɹ], although it is also common that a speaker will use an alveolar tap [ɾ]. Less common is use of the alveolar trill [r] (hereafter, will be used to denote any rhotic consonant).
While other dialects have merged /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /ʌ/ before /r/, Scottish English makes a distinction between the vowels in herd, bird, and curd.
Many varieties contrast /o/ and /ɔ/ before /r/ so that hoarse and horse are pronounced differently.
/or/ and /ur/ are contrasted so that shore and sure are pronounced differently, as are pour and poor.
/r/ before /l/ is strong. An epenthetic vowel may occur between /r/ and /l/ so that girl and world are two-syllable words for some speakers. The same may occur between /r/ and /m/, between /r/ and /n/, and between /l/ and /m/.
There is a distinction between /w/ and /hw/ in word pairs such as witch and which.
The phoneme /x/ is common in names and in SSE's many Gaelic and Scots borrowings, so much so that it is often taught to incomers, particularly for "ch" in loch. Some Scottish speakers use it in words of Greek origin as well, such as technical, patriarch, etc. The pronunciation of these words in the original Greek would support this. (Wells 1982, 408).
/l/ is usually velarized (see dark l) except in borrowings like "glen" (from Scottish Gaelic "gleann") which had unvelarized l in their original form. In areas where Scottish Gaelic was spoken until relatively recently (such as Dumfries and Galloway) and in areas where it is still spoken (such as the West Highlands), velarization of /l/ may be absent in many words in which it is present in other areas, but remains in borrowings that had velarized /l/ in Gaelic, such as "loch" (Gaelic "loch") and "clan" (Gaelic "clann").
Vowel length is generally regarded as non-phonemic, although a distinctive part of Scottish English is the Scots vowel length rule (Scobbie et al. 1999). Certain vowels (such as /i/, /u/, and /æ/) are generally long but are shortened before nasals and voiced plosives. However, this does not occur across morpheme boundaries so that crude contrasts with crewed, need with kneed and side with sighed.
Scottish English has no /ʊ/, instead transferring Scots /u/. Phonetically, this vowel may be pronounced [ʉ] or even [ʏ]. Thus pull and pool are homophones.
Cot and caught are not differentiated in most Central Scottish varieties, as they are in some other varieties.[15]
In most varieties, there is no /æ/-/ɑː/ distinction; therefore, bath, trap, and palm have the same vowel.[15]
The happY vowel is most commonly /e/ (as in face), but may also be /ɪ/ (as in kit) or /i/ (as in fleece).[16]
/θs/ is often used in plural nouns where southern English has /ðz/ (baths, youths, etc.); with and booth are pronounced with /θ/. (See Pronunciation of English th.)
In colloquial speech, the glottal stop may be an allophone of /t/ after a vowel, as in [ˈbʌʔər]. These same speakers may "drop the g" in the suffix -ing and debuccalize /θ/ to [h] in certain contexts.
/ɪ/ may be more open for certain speakers in some regions, so that it sounds more like [ɛ] (although /ɪ/ and /ɛ/ do not merge). Other speakers may pronounce it as [ɪ], just like in many other accents, or with a schwa-like ([ə]) quality. Others may pronounce it almost as [ʌ] in certain environments, particularly after /w/ and /hw/.
Correspondence between the IPA help key and Scottish English vowels (many individual words do not correspond)
Pure vowels
Help key Scottish Examples
/ɪ/ /ɪ/ bid, pit
/iː/ /i/ bead, peat
/ɛ/ /ɛ/ bed, pet
/eɪ/ /e/ bay, hey, fate
/æ/ /a/ bad, pat
/ɑː/ balm, father, pa
/ɒ/ /ɔ/ bod, pot, cot
/ɔː/ bawd, paw, caught
/oʊ/ /o/ beau, hoe, poke
/ʊ/ /ʉ/ good, foot, put
/uː/ booed, food
/ʌ/ /ʌ/ bud, putt
Diphthongs
/aɪ/ /ae/ ~ /əi/ buy, ride, write
/aʊ/ /ʌu/ how, pout
/ɔɪ/ /oi/ boy, hoy
/juː/ /jʉ/ hue, pew, new
R-colored vowels (these do not exist in Scots)
/ɪr/ /ɪr/ mirror (also in fir)
/ɪər/ /ir/ beer, mere
/ɛr/ /ɛr/ berry, merry (also in her)
/ɛər/ /er/ bear, mare, Mary
/ær/ /ar/ barrow, marry
/ɑr/ bar, mar
/ɒr/ /ɔr/ moral, forage
/ɔr/ born, for
/ɔər/ /or/ boar, four, more
/ʊər/ /ur/ boor, moor
/ʌr/ /ʌr/ hurry, Murray (also in fur)
/ɜr/ (ɝ) /ɪr/, /ɛr/, /ʌr/ bird, herd, furry
Reduced vowels
/ɨ/ roses, business
/ə/ /ə/ Rosa’s, cuppa
/ər/ (ɚ) /ər/ runner, mercer
Full transcript