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Innovative and New Food Products
Transcript of Innovative and New Food Products
High Pressure Processing
Genetic modification is a process that alters the genetic material of plants or animals by duplicating, removing or inserting one or more new genes to improve its characteristics.
When scientists genetically modify an organism, they identify and isolate a specific gene from the cells of a plant, animal or microbe and make a copy of it. The gene will express a desired characteristic, for example, drought tolerant. The gene is then inserted into the DNA of another organism. the characteristic is then expressed in the organism and passed on to future generations.
Transgenic organisms are produced when DNA from an
unrelated plant or animal is transferred into another plant or animal. eg. herbicide resistant gene from bacteria transferred into DNA of soya bean.
GM Canola has been approved in Australia - it is herbicide resistant.
It has many advantages over non-gm canola:
can be dry-sown
20% greater yield
less spraying of herbicide is needed
Nearly 2 million children in developing countries die as the result of Vitamin A deficiency. Vitamin A is essential for growth, eyesight and a healthy immune system.
This major health issue has
been addressed by scientists adding Vitamin A to rice, as rice is a staple food in many developing countries throughout the world. Many Asian and African children benefit from this gm food.
scientists planted 3 new genes in the canola plant:
2 genes from daffodils
one from a bacterium
GM Canola is a Transgenic Organism!
Non Browning Potatoes.
What are they
Foods produced using genetic modification
Potatoes easily become damaged with black spot brusing during secondary processing. Scientists have isolated the gene that causes the potato to turn black when damaged, they have created a 'back to front' gene that prevents the browning. They insert this gene into the DNA of the potato, preventing the black spot bruising. A naturally present gene is thus altered.
Other GM Products:
Broccoli - Ripens more slowly, stays greener for longer.
Tomato - slower ripening, less rotting, resistant to viruses.
Strawberries - frost resistant so can grow in cooler climates.
Celery - retention of crispness.
Livestock - increase growth hormone, faster growing animals are produced, feed cost is reduced, more lean meat.
Milk Producing animals - growth hormones increased,
increasing yield and protein content.
BENEFITS OF GM FOODS - PRODUCERS
reduction of pesticide and herbicide use due to resistance
less wastage, greater yields
longer shelf life for vegetables, an altered enzyme slows the ripening process
greater production per hectare of land
drought tolerant plants, more crops can be grown
more precise in developing desired characteristics
BENEFITS OF GM FOODS - CONSUMERS
increased nutrient content eg protein in rice
improvement of sensory properties eg tomatoes are
redder with improved flavour and texture
production of edible vaccines - painless, more accessible
way of reducing disease
in developing countries - reducing famine
CONCERNS ABOUT GM FOODS:
To farmers, consumers and environment:
exports could be stopped due to other countries wanting GM free foods
contamination of non-GM crops
affects to human health - effectiveness of antibiotics
people who are allergic to foods won't know if the protein they are allergic to has been inserted into the food
vegetarians - may be exposed to animal protein introduced by GM
animals can suffer health problems
when modified to grow faster eg arthritis,
Potatoes grown commercially don't brown during harvest, transporting and processing. The quality of chips and fries improves and the non-browning, GM potatoes taste like conventional potatoes.
Possible Impact of GM Foods on Environment-
genetic pollution - cross pollination
genes resistant to herbicides could flow to weeds - producing super weeds! Could lead to increased herbicide use
reduces natural diversity, crops may lose resistance to other diseases
biodiversity - balance of wildlife and environment - may be affected. Insects that eat crops that are then eaten by birds may be toxic for example
High Pressure Processing
High Pressure Processing
It is a method of preserving food that involves subjecting food to intense pressures to kill microbes, such as yeasts, moulds and bacteria, while maintaining the fresh qualities of the food.
Products are packaged in their final packaging, eg a plastic container. They are then placed in a high-pressure chamber with water surrounding the product. A pump creates pressure for a specified time - the water in and around the food is used to transmit the pressure. Even pressure maintains the shape of food.
Examples of foods suitable for high pressure processing are:
foods with high acid content
vegetable dips eg salsa
Benefits of High Pressure Processing
product can be processed cold, so aroma, flavour, colour, texture and nutrient content are not affected by heat
the process destroys pathogens eg listeria, E-coli and Salmonella
yeasts and moulds are killed, so product has longer shelf life
even pressure means food retains shape and texture
chemical preservatives are not required, clean-green foods are produced
Concerns About High Pressure Processing
it cannot be used for low acid foods like milk
cost of setting up is very high
it is used for high value foods so are expensive for consumers
is only appropriate for a limited range of foods
How does microencapsulation technology work?
It is the packaging of small particles of an active or functional ingredient in a minute capsule.
This process masks the flavour of ingredients or extends the shelf life
Foods produced using microencapsulation
a range of food products with omega-3 eg bread; margarine; breakfast cereal; cheese; milk
Milk or juice with iron added (fortified). It prevents the metallic taste being detected
jelly beans - with individual flavours
gum - flavour molecules are encapsulated so they are long lasting
Benefits of technology:
masks flavour of core material
enables controlled release of core material
improves properties during manufacturing
enhances sensory properties eg. stabilises colour in jelly beans
even distribution of core material
Concerns of Microencapsulation
may be too expensive for consumers
may be rejected by people wanting organic food
fluid is pumped over membranes with minute pores that hold back large molecules protein, but allow small particles eg lactose and water through
also uses membrane technology eg milk with increased protein and/or calcium. Pores are smaller than ultrafiltration - only water passes through
Products made using Membrane Technology