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Transcript of Charlemagne
Europe Before Charlemagne
Abandonment of the classical way of thinking in the Greek and Roman empire
Fell under the feudal system: Nobility had all the power,
serfs or peasants had none and had to work for the nobles
There was no set currency at the time, many areas just went by gold or other precious items
Lack of Education
The Church heavily taxed everyone, including the nobles
Most were Christian, however, other religions existed in Spain, Saxony,and the Eastern Area of the Slavs and Avar kingdom
Rise to Power
Born in 742 to Pepin the Short in Aix-la Chapelle(Aachen) Germany
Pepin became King of the Franks in 750-made the "Donation of Pepin"
768-Pepin dies and Charlemagne takes the western half along the Atlantic coast
770- His mother arranges his marriage marriage with a Lombard woman (Desiderata) but it only lasted a year
771-Carolman, his brother dies and his wife leaves to Lombardy, leaving Charlemagne as "King of the Franks"
War with Lombardy
Adrian I demanded lands returned to the papacy
Instead Desidarius began taking more land and marched towards Rome
In 772 Adrian asked for help from Charlemagne owed because of Pepin's donation.
Charlemagne Launched a military campaign into Lombardy
After less than 2 years he had defeated Desiderius and caused Lombardy to surrender becoming "King of the Lombards"
In 776 there was a small uprising but it was quickly put down
To fully incorporate Lombardy under his control, he created the sub-kingdom Italy with his son Pippin as King
War With The Saxons
Powerful neighbors with opposing cultures and no physical borders
War lasted for 33 years- longest Charlemagne would fight
Dominated by the Franks
Saxons would ask for peace but betray it right away
Grew sick of this and made not being christian punishable by death
Executed around 4,500 Saxons after one uprising-Massacre at Verden
Ended after a surrender in 804 where Charlemagne relocated 10 000 throughout Gaul and Germany
War with Spain
In 774 Charlemagne moved towards Spain
Both to combat Umayyad leader and muslims
Did fight christians though (Basques)
As they were returning his rear guard was ambushed and recorded in the "Song of Roland"
He blamed the loss on Ibn al Arubi, who he was in Spain to help
Sacked Barcelona, took Arubi as prisoner of war and went home
Took no land from this campaign
The Avars and Slavs
The Avars and Charlemagne were beside each other after annexation of Bavaria in 788
Avars attempted to expand into Charlemagne's kingdom but were shut down
Charlemagne led three successful campaigns in 791,795 and 796
Campaigns by his son Pippin and the Duke of Friuli brought about an end to he empire of the Avars
The Avars had also conquered the Slavs and both were converted to christianity
Educated by the monks of Saint Denis
Connected to Pope through Pepin's donation
Reaffirmed connection with Lombard War
"Our task [as secular ruler] is externally, with God's help, to defend with our arms the holy Church of Christ against attacks by the heathen from any side and against devastation by the infidels and, internally, to strengthen the Church by the recognition of the Catholic faith. Your share, Most Holy Father, is to support our army with hands upraised to God, as did Moses in ancient days, so that the name of our Lord Jesus Christ may be glorified throughout the world."
Close to a fairly unpopular Pope Leo III
Crowned holy Roman Emperor Christmas Day year 800
Europe c.800 CE
Spread and Evolution
Charlemagne converted all of his subjects to christianity
Believed church and state needed to be allies
Helped popularize Adoptism
Built many churches, including Aachen cathedral
"Behold another Constantine, who has risen in our times"-Adrian I
Charlemagne's attempted revival of the Roman Empire
What makes him truly important
“his energetic political, cultural, and religious reform, became known as the Carolingian Renaissance and is one reason Charles was given the appellation, "Great," in Latin, Charlemagne.” -Christianity Today
He himself could not read or write
Interested in learning his whole life, especially about romans
Set up a school in his palace and many across the kingdom
Collected an impressive library inside his palace
Taught everyone Latin in his schools and copied bibles so everyone could understand the religion
Created a new silver currency
Boosted trade inside kingdom
Swords, pottery, glass etc were made in france for trade with England and Scandanavia
Traded with Muslims
Made pacts with Venice merchants
Laws and other Reforms
Divided kingdom into hundreds of counties
Made sure that serfs weren't being treated poorly
Traveled freely throughout his kingdom
Gave land to warriors who were loyal to him
Same laws everywhere creating a common identity
First person to ever unify Germany
Created a fair empire
King in 772
Emperor in 800
Canonized between 1112-1190
Made patron Saint of France along with Saint Denis
Many stories told of him
His greatness caused problems for Europe as many tried to match him, but none could.
Do you think Charlemagne’s ideas would later help to spark the renaissance or would it have
happened anyways and the Charlemagne was completely unconnected?
Would you consider Charlemagne a Renaissance man that came to soon, or a Roman Emperor that arrived too late?
In your opinion, was it right for Charlemagne to convert all of his subjects to Christianity?
Phase IV: Carolingian Renaissance (772-814)
Charlemagne attempted to rebuild the Roman empire and bring back classical way of life
Began building churches and buildings in the roman style such as his cathedral in Aachen
Had almost all of western Europe under his rule
Brought back laws and attempted to give power to the people
Returned to a common currency set up (silver piece) to boost economy
Set up education to teach his empire Latin and resume mathematics and science
Fell apart after his death in 814
“Though the territory would splinter again in the centuries that followed, Charlemagne's reforms were the spark that ignited Europe's cultural rebirth.”-Heather Whipps