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Global Pattern of Agriculture and Agribusiness.
Transcript of Global Pattern of Agriculture and Agribusiness.
What is Agriculture?
Agriculture is act of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the tending of animals to provide food, wool, and other products.
It was the key development in the rise of human civilization.
What is Agribusiness?
Agribusiness is shaping the world distribution of commercial agriculture systems and their relationship to subsistence agriculture.
agribusiness connects small farms to an extensive web of production and exchange.
Types of Agriculture
- the land that can be farmed
- farming related to livestock
Commercial, Cash Crops
- Production of crops for sale, intended for widespread distribution (cash crops grown on large estates is called plantation agriculture)
- self-sufficient farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed their family.
- relies on crop rotation, the green way of farming, demand in wealthier countries
- agricultural, the need for technology such as pesticides and chemical fertilizers
- small inputs of labor, for example sheep and cattle farming
How Climate Affects Agriculture and Agribusiness
•Physiological effects on crops, pasture, forests and livestock (quantity, quality)
•Changes in land, soil and water resources (quantity, quality)
• Increased weed and pest challenges
•Sea level rise, changes to ocean salinity
•Sea temperature rises causing fish to inhabit different ranges
•Decline in production
•Reduced marginal GDP from agriculture
•Fluctuations in world market prices
•Changes in geographical distribution of trade regimes
•Increased number of people at risk of hunger and food insecurity
•Migration and civil unrest
World Climate Map
(temperature and precipitation)
Large scale farming that requires large area of land, equipment, labor force, and the latest technology.
Roots of commercial agriculture are traced back to European powers
EX. Cotton made in Egypt, Sudan, India and other colonized countries was bought cheap by Europe, and made into clothes and then sold again.
EX. Africa is trying to commercialize as well as improve agricultural productivity which requires the use of chemical fertilizers, mechanization, research and development. The need is also on infrastructure to move products around.
Transportation and kitchen devices have increased commercial agriculture.
EX. Beef industry in Argentina, secured a world market when refrigerated ships made it possible to transport a highly perishable product worldwide
- stop at 2 minutes
Fair Trade Coffee - coffee grown by fair trade farmers who then sell the coffee to importers
- guarantees a "fair trade price"
- over 500,000 farmers
- produced in over 20 countries
- most of the time organically produced
Farmland is in danger of being suburbanized as cities expand into neighboring farmlands
Loss of Productive Farmland
What's the difference between commercial and subsistence agriculture?
Think of another example of commercial agriculture besides the ones listed.
What’s common about all the places suitable for agriculture?
(EX: location, climate types, etc.)