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Human Body Systems

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by

Daniel Dychkowski

on 13 May 2015

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Transcript of Human Body Systems

Endocrine
Respiratory
Excretion
Integumentary
Digestive
Skeletal-Muscle
Nervous
Immune
Reproductive and Development
DO NOW:
DO NOW:
1. How is the human body like your Macbook Pro?
2. Complete the diagram to the right:
Form is function
Connective:
give the body structure, i/e bone and cartilage
Epithelial:
cells that line inner and outer body surfaces. Protects the body and its internal organs, secretes substances such as hormones, and absorbs substances.
Muscle:
Cells that have the unique ability to contract, or become shorter.
Nervous:
Neurons carry electrical messages. Nervous tissue makes up the brain and the nerves that connect the brain to all parts of the body.
________: a group of connected cells that have a similar function.
__________: a structure that consists of two or more types of tissues that work together to do the same job.
Organism / Individual
Population
Ecosystems
1. What is the difference between digestion and absorption?
2. What are chemical and mechanical digestion and where do they occur?
3. Give two functions of saliva.
4. Why is our digestive tract considered one way?
3300 ft
2
Peristalsis
30 ft long
Diseases/Disorders of the Digestive System:
Crohn's Disease
Stomach Ulcers
Travelers Dysentery
Colon Cancer
Diarrhea
Constipation
GERD
Celiac Disease
Lactose Intolerance
IBS
Practice with structures and enzymes.
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Extreme Dieting
Excretion is the removal of metabolic wastes.
Left over pieces from cellular processes that are useless and may or may not be recyclable. They can be toxic in large amounts.
Osmoregulation
The regulation of the concentrations of water and electrolytes.
Urea
Carbon dioxide
Urea
Proteinuria
40 Gallons in a bathtub
Diuretic:
any substance that promotes the production of urine
Filtration, Reabsorption, Secretion, Excretion
Types of Wastes
Ammonia
Urea
Uric Acid
Benefits
Drawbacks
Examples
Highly toxic, only works in aquatic environments
Concentrated wastes, highly soluble in water, rapid diffusion, requires no energy
Small soft-bodied invertebrates, most fish
Low toxicity, doesn't need to be removed immediately
Energy is used to convert ammonia into urea, water is lost in excretion
Mammals, sharks, most amphibians
Requires the most energy
Conserves water, nontoxic
Birds, reptiles
(organisms with shelled eggs)
Diseases/Disorders of the Respiratory System:
Pneumonia
Edema
Asthma
Cancer
Bronchitis
Do Now:
1. Identify the following structures:

2. What are the benefits of breathing through your nose?

3. Why do we need to breathe?

4. How do our lungs inflate?
Negative Pressure Breathing:
Reminder:
Air flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.

During
inhalation

our ribcage expands as muscles between the ribs contract. At the same time the diaphragm contracts, expanding the chest cavity. This lowers the air pressure within the lungs which forces air down the trachea.
Positive Pressure Breathing:
Circulatory
Blood Composition:
The Evolution of 4 Chambered Hearts:
Do Now:
1. Why do we need blood? What is its job?

2. What are the components of blood?

3. Why is our circulatory system considered closed?
Diseases/Disorders:
Clotting:
Medical Procedures:
Blood Pressure
About one in three U.S. adults has high blood pressure (hypertension).
Typically more attention is given to the top number (the systolic blood pressure) as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease for people over 50 years old.
Heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, heart failure...
Hypertension
Myocardial infarction
Arteriosclerosis
Heart Murmur
Collapsed veins
Hematoma
Aneurysm
Stroke
Coronary bypass
Electrocardiogram
Angioplasty (Balloon and Stent)
Hemophilia
Leukemia
Sickle cell anemia
LIVER
The liver processes this blood and breaks down the nutrients and drugs in the blood into forms that are easier to use for the rest of the body
. More than 500 vital functions have been identified with the liver. Some of the more well-known functions include the following:

-production of bile
-production of certain proteins for blood plasma
-production of cholesterol and special proteins to help carry fats through the body
-
conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage

-regulation of blood levels of amino acids, which form the building blocks of proteins
-
processing of hemoglobin for use of its iron content

-
conversion of poisonous ammonia to urea

-
clearing the blood of drugs and other poisonous substances
-regulating blood clotting
-resisting infections by producing immune factors and removing bacteria from the bloodstream

When the liver has broken down harmful substances, they are excreted into the bile or blood.
Bile by-products enter the intestine and ultimately leave the body in the feces. Blood by-products are filtered out by the kidneys and leave the body in the form of urine.
Spleen Function
-
Filtration of red blood cells
. Reserve of monocytes. In humans, it does not act as a reservoir of blood cells. It can also
store platelets
in case of an emergency. (
'Red Pulp'
)
Phineas Gage
1823-1860
The Limbic System
The Cerebrum
The Brain Stem
Action Potential and Neurotransmission
3 Na+
2 K+
Parkinson's Disease
Huntington's Disease
M.S.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Menstual Cycle
Corpus luteum secretes progesterone.
Egg is preparing to be released.
The release of an ova (egg).
Along with progesterone, regulates the thickening of the uterine lining (endometrium).
Stimulates the follicle to transform into the corpus luteum, regulated by the pituitary.
Regulates the endometrium. If there is no implantation levels drop causing the shedding of the lining.
Regulated by the pituitary
Develops into the skin and the nervous system.
Develop into the internal organs; lungs, liver, digestive system…
Will give rise to the muscle, blood, and bones (Primitive animals develop a noncellular mesoglea instead).
Deuterostomes:
“Mouth Second”, echinoderms and chordates, are bilaterally symmetrical (at least for a portion of their lives). The first invagination develops into the anus.
Differentiation:
Stem cells become specialized, developing into one of the 200 types of cells present in a human body.
Mesoderm
System of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood.

1822: St. Martin and Dr. Beaumont
HCO3-
Bicarbonate
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