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Human Body Systems
Transcript of Human Body Systems
Reproductive and Development
1. How is the human body like your Macbook Pro?
2. Complete the diagram to the right:
Form is function
give the body structure, i/e bone and cartilage
cells that line inner and outer body surfaces. Protects the body and its internal organs, secretes substances such as hormones, and absorbs substances.
Cells that have the unique ability to contract, or become shorter.
Neurons carry electrical messages. Nervous tissue makes up the brain and the nerves that connect the brain to all parts of the body.
________: a group of connected cells that have a similar function.
__________: a structure that consists of two or more types of tissues that work together to do the same job.
Organism / Individual
1. What is the difference between digestion and absorption?
2. What are chemical and mechanical digestion and where do they occur?
3. Give two functions of saliva.
4. Why is our digestive tract considered one way?
30 ft long
Diseases/Disorders of the Digestive System:
Practice with structures and enzymes.
Excretion is the removal of metabolic wastes.
Left over pieces from cellular processes that are useless and may or may not be recyclable. They can be toxic in large amounts.
The regulation of the concentrations of water and electrolytes.
40 Gallons in a bathtub
any substance that promotes the production of urine
Filtration, Reabsorption, Secretion, Excretion
Types of Wastes
Highly toxic, only works in aquatic environments
Concentrated wastes, highly soluble in water, rapid diffusion, requires no energy
Small soft-bodied invertebrates, most fish
Low toxicity, doesn't need to be removed immediately
Energy is used to convert ammonia into urea, water is lost in excretion
Mammals, sharks, most amphibians
Requires the most energy
Conserves water, nontoxic
(organisms with shelled eggs)
Diseases/Disorders of the Respiratory System:
1. Identify the following structures:
2. What are the benefits of breathing through your nose?
3. Why do we need to breathe?
4. How do our lungs inflate?
Negative Pressure Breathing:
Air flows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
our ribcage expands as muscles between the ribs contract. At the same time the diaphragm contracts, expanding the chest cavity. This lowers the air pressure within the lungs which forces air down the trachea.
Positive Pressure Breathing:
The Evolution of 4 Chambered Hearts:
1. Why do we need blood? What is its job?
2. What are the components of blood?
3. Why is our circulatory system considered closed?
About one in three U.S. adults has high blood pressure (hypertension).
Typically more attention is given to the top number (the systolic blood pressure) as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease for people over 50 years old.
Heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, heart failure...
Angioplasty (Balloon and Stent)
Sickle cell anemia
The liver processes this blood and breaks down the nutrients and drugs in the blood into forms that are easier to use for the rest of the body
. More than 500 vital functions have been identified with the liver. Some of the more well-known functions include the following:
-production of bile
-production of certain proteins for blood plasma
-production of cholesterol and special proteins to help carry fats through the body
conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage
-regulation of blood levels of amino acids, which form the building blocks of proteins
processing of hemoglobin for use of its iron content
conversion of poisonous ammonia to urea
clearing the blood of drugs and other poisonous substances
-regulating blood clotting
-resisting infections by producing immune factors and removing bacteria from the bloodstream
When the liver has broken down harmful substances, they are excreted into the bile or blood.
Bile by-products enter the intestine and ultimately leave the body in the feces. Blood by-products are filtered out by the kidneys and leave the body in the form of urine.
Filtration of red blood cells
. Reserve of monocytes. In humans, it does not act as a reservoir of blood cells. It can also
in case of an emergency. (
The Limbic System
The Brain Stem
Action Potential and Neurotransmission
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Corpus luteum secretes progesterone.
Egg is preparing to be released.
The release of an ova (egg).
Along with progesterone, regulates the thickening of the uterine lining (endometrium).
Stimulates the follicle to transform into the corpus luteum, regulated by the pituitary.
Regulates the endometrium. If there is no implantation levels drop causing the shedding of the lining.
Regulated by the pituitary
Develops into the skin and the nervous system.
Develop into the internal organs; lungs, liver, digestive system…
Will give rise to the muscle, blood, and bones (Primitive animals develop a noncellular mesoglea instead).
“Mouth Second”, echinoderms and chordates, are bilaterally symmetrical (at least for a portion of their lives). The first invagination develops into the anus.
Stem cells become specialized, developing into one of the 200 types of cells present in a human body.
System of glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood.
1822: St. Martin and Dr. Beaumont