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Chinese Civil War Timeline
Transcript of Chinese Civil War Timeline
Chinese Civil War 1928 - 1945
8 September 1931 - Japan invades and occupies Manchuria
16 October 1934 - The Long March Begins
20 October 1935 - The Long March Ends
December 1936 - The Xi'an Incident
6 and 9 August 1945 - USA drops atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The Soviet Union attacks the Japanese army in Manchuria and occupies the province.
With defeat imminent, the Communist Red army within the Jiangxi Soviet fled the Nationalists in an event called 'The Long March' to the Yanan Soviet in northern China. The retreating force consisted of more than 85,000 soldiers.
Chiang attempts to use warlord allies to harass and attack the CCP during the Long March but the warlords are largely reluctant to directly engage the CCP.
The Long March marked the emergence of Mao Zedong as the undisputed leader of the Chinese Communists. While Mao was able to successfully evacuate his army to Yanan, Zhang Guotao failed at evacuating his troops.
Learning of the Communists’ heroism in the Long March, thousands of young Chinese traveled to Yanan to enlist in Mao’s Red army. Yan’an was the largest base and headquarters of the CCP between 1936 and 1948.
This was a major turning point during the Chinese Civil war where GMD generals kidnapped Chiang and forced him to agree to a truce with the CCP in order to form a second united front against Japan
1 December 1937 - Nanjing Massacre Japan launches a full scale invasion of northern and coastal China; GMD engages in full scale warfare against the Japanese army; CCP engages in guerilla warfare against the Japanese army
9 September 1945 - Japan formally surrenders to the Allies marking the end of the Sino-Japanese war
Chiang and Mao meet in Chongqing to discuss China’s post-war reconstruction
Jiangxi Soviet ~ Long March ~ Sino-Japanese War ~ Second United Front ~ Role of Guerilla Warfare ~ Communists in Yanan
The Second United Front: the brief alliance between the Chinese Nationalists Party (GMD) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War
22 May 1925 - Sun Yat-sen appointed Chiang Kai Shek to command the Nationalist army.
9 July 1926 - Chiang Kai-shek launches the Northern Expedition to defeat the warlords of central and northern China and unite China under GMD control
12 April 1927 - GMD arrests and executes several thousand CCP leaders and left-wing GMD members in an event known as the Shanghai Massacre. Mao and other CCP members flee to Hunan Province where they mount the Autumn Harvest Uprising against the GMD along with peasants and miners. The CCP mount small-scale rebellions throughout rural areas of southern China.
28 April 1928 - The GMD captures Beijing and the Northern Expedition more or less unites China
The Communist Party of China (CPC) was ultimately led by Mao Zedong.
The Kuomintang (GMT) was founded by Sun Yat-sen. The group was led by Chiang Kai-shek throughout the civil war.
15 May 1930 - The GMD launches a series of encirclement campaigns known as the Central Plains War to isolate and attack the Jiangxi Soviet. It was launched by Feng Yuxiang, Yan Xishan, and Wang JingweFive different campaigns over four years were highly successful. The main campaign lasted from December 1930 to July 1931, and resulted in the destruction of the CCP target base area, and thousands of communist party deaths
Mid November 1939 - GMD removes its best troops from direct confrontation with the Japanese after costly losses. The CCP however continue their guerilla tactics. This wins them widespread popular support throughout China
19 April 1944 - Japanese forces launch the Ichingo Offensive in southern and central China causing further defeats and retreats for the GMD
Guerrilla warfare: a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as armed civilians or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
1941 to 1944 - The Rectification Campaign enabled Mao Zedong to consolidate his position as party leader, through a process of thought reform, ‘struggle sessions’, public intimidation and systematic purges of CCP members.
6 January 1941 - Repeated disagreements and skirmishes between the GMD and CCP in “free China” lead to a total breakdown of the Second United Front, in particular New Fourth Army incident. This was when GMD forces breached the truce by attacking and destroying the headquarters of the CCP New Fourth Army, with thousands of Communist casualties in retaliation of an earlier CCP attack in September 1940.
The incident portrayed the GMD in a negative light (for creating internal strife when the Chinese were supposed to be united against the Japanese) while the CCP was seen as heroes. However, the CCP lost possession of the lands south of Changjiang.
25 September 1933 - Chiang launched another campaign that involved the systematic encirclement of the Jiangxi Soviet region, with fortified blockhouses. This time, the aim of the KMT troops is to surround the Communist areas and cut off their supplies and food source by using blockhouses. Also the Shang Hai Massacre happened However, in October, the CCP had took the advantage of the gaps in the ring of the blockhouses