_ ATOMIC STRUCTURE Boring ? or maybe not time will tell.. Subatomic Particles PROTON Positively Charged A proton determines what the element is

as well as the atomic number + + Adding or removing protons from the nucleus of an atom creates a different element with a different atomic number. Example: removing one proton from helium creates hydrogen, and if a proton is added to helium it will become lithium. Helium Hydrogen Lithium Atomic Number: 3

Number of Protons: 3

Ion: positive 1

Mass number: 5

Element: Lithium Atomic Number: 1

Number of Protons: 1

Ion: negative 1

Mass number: 3

Element: Hydrogen Atomic Number: 2

Number of Protons: 2

Ion: nuetral

Mass number: 4

Element: Helium Therefore the atomic number (which identifies the element) = The number of protons in an electron The mass of the proton is about 1,840 times the mass of the electron as well as slightly less than the mass of a neutron Also experimental evidence suggests that a proton has a lifetime of at least 10^31 years Removing one proton Adding one proton NEUTRON Has no charge Protons and Neutrons make up the atomic mass in an element

includes all the protons and neutrons in an element each counting for 1 atomic mass unit (amu) It is possible to find the number of neutrons in an atom by subtracting the atomic mass by the atomic number

Adding or removing neutrons doesn’t create a new element; however it does create isotopes, which can be unstable and change the atomic mass of the atom Neutrons are found in the nucleus (with the protons) ELECTRON Negatively Charged - - For example Halogens and Alkali Metals are very reactive, as they are one electron off from a full outer shell, and to become stable like the noble gases (which are nonreactive) Mass: 9.10938188 × 10^-31 kilograms Electrons orbit outside the nucleus of the atom in an electron cloud. The electron(s) are attracted to the nucleus which is positively charged (because of the proton(s)). An element's chemical characteristics depends on the number of electrons in the outer shell (valence shell) Covalent bonding – 2 non-metals sharing electrons (mostly halogens, causing them to be diatomic molecules- two atoms from the same element bonding with each other) Atoms will bond with each other to have a full valence shell Ionic bonding – between 1 metal and 1 non-metal Types of bonding: the atoms become ions (an atom with either a positive or negitive charge) (metal: positive ion, non-metal: negative ion) causing them to attract to each other An atom which is a metal will give an electron to a non-metal Li F +1 -1 Li F Lithium's electron given to Fluorine F F F F Radioactive Iodine I-131 (Radioiodine I-131) is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism (Graves’ Disease) which causes the thyroid gland in the neck to be overactive and produce too much of two essential hormones that convert food into energy (metabolism).It is also used in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Iodine I-131 However, because the likely hood that most the cells will be destroyed, patients will need thyroid pills (for the rest of their lives) that will mimic the same job as the gland (at creating the 2 hormones). The 8 day half-life means that the isotope decays very fast and doesn’t stay in the system for long, therefore only exposing the unstable isotope to the patient for only a short period of time Dangers: It can cause mutation or death in cells penetrated by the isotope or that are nearby penetration. Therefore for therapeutic (medical) use, only high doses are used. However, high doses are less dangerous as it will kill off all the cells, instead of small doses where it will instead mutate cells and cause cancer. H (Hydrogen):

1s^1

He (Helium):

1s^2

Li (Lithium):

1s^2 2s^1

Be (Beryllium):

1s^2 2s^2

B (Boron):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^1 C (Carbon):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^2

N (Nitrogen):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^3

O (Oxygen):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^4

F (Fluorine):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^5

Ne (Neon):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 Na (Sodium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^1

Mg (Magnesium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2

Al (Aluminum):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^1

Si (Silicon):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^2

P (Phosphorus):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^3 S (Sulfur):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^4

Cl (Chlorine):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^5

Ar (Argon):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6

K (Potassium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^1

Ca (Calcium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 Sc (Scandium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^1

Ti (Titanium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^2

V (Vanadium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^3

Cr (Chromium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^4

Mn (Manganese):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^5 Fe (Iron):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^6

Co (Cobalt):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^7

Ni (Nickel):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^8

Cu (Copper):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^9

Zn (Zinc):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 Ga (Gallium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^1

Ge (Germanium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^2

As (Arsenic):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^3

Se (Selenium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^4

Br (Bromine):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^5 Kr (Krypton):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6

Rb (Rubidium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^1

Sr (Strontium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2

Y (Yttrium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^1

Zr (Zirconium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^2 Nb (Niobium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^3

Mo (Molybdenum):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^4

Tc (Technetium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^5

Ru (Ruthenium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^1 4d^7

Rh (Rhodium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^1 4d^8 Ag (Silver):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^1 4d^10

Cd (Cadmium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10

In (Indium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10 5p^1

Sn (Tin):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10 5p^2

Sb (Antimony):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10 5p^3 Te (Tellurium):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10 5p^4

I (Iodine):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10 5p^5

Xe (Xenon):

1s^2 2s^2 2p^6 3s^2 3p^6 4s^2 3d^10 4p^6 5s^2 4d^10 5p^6 Configuration Electron Location &

Momentum

Electrons are constantly moving therefore if you want to find the exact location you have to stop the electron, however to find the momentum the electron has to be moving. Therefore either the momentum can be found or the location but not both. Quantum Numbers n How far away from the nucleus the electron is 1 2 3 electron shell 1 2 3 1 2 3 m orientation on the axes (x, y, z) s p(x) p(y) p(z) d(xz) d(yz) d(xy) d(z^2) d(x^2-y^2) s:

p(x):

p(y):

p(z):

d(xy):

d(xz):

d(z^2):

d(yz):

d(x^2-y^2): 0

±1

±1

0

±2

±1

0

±1

±2 s p p p d d d d d l orbital shape (s, p, d, f) s:

p:

d: 0

1

2 s spin of the electron _ _ negatives don't attract and will repel and bounce off from each other _ However, if two electrons spin in different directions this will allow the two negative particles not to bounce off each other.

This will also cause one of the electrons to have a spin of +1/2 and the other -1/2 This will cause one of the electrons to be +1/2 and the other to be -1/2 Zn 1 2 4 3 5 8 10 7 11 12 6 9 19 20 13 16 14 17 18 15 21 26 22 27 28 23 20 24 29 25 30 Electron #2

n = 1

l = 0

m = 0

s = -1/2 Electron #9

n = 2

l = 1

m = 0

s = -1/2 Electron #21

n = 3

l = 2

m = +2

s = +1/2 Electron #19

n = 4

l = 0

m = 0

s = +1/2 However, if the shell is not filled this will cause the electrons to repel and bounce away from each other, as they have the same spin and both have a negative charged This will cause the electrons to spread out between the p orbitals (x,z,y) _ _ p(x) p(y) p(z) Ionization energy: the amount of energy input needed for one mole of an element to lose one mole of valence electrons In atoms, if energy is added, it’s electron(s) may move to different shells (and change from ground state to excited state) or get knocked out of the atom altogether. If an electron is not knocked out but rather moved up either one or more main energy level it will go back to the nearest open shell closest to the nucleus (lowest energy configuration). This is because of the attraction between the negative electron and the positive nucleus, therefore it is this attraction that pulls the electron into the closest open shell to the nucleus. The energy lost in the electrons transition to a lower orbital will be in the form of light. From this light it is possible to tell what some elements are Continuous Spectrum Emission Spectrum _ + Atoms such as Lithium with only have one s valence electron will not need a lot of energy; however Hydrogen which also has one s valence electron on its sub level, and only one main energy level will not lose its valence electron as easily as Lithium which has two main energy levels. This is because even though they both want to get rid of an electron, the electron in which Lithium is giving away is further away from the nucleus than the one that Hydrogen is giving away, making it easier for Lithium to lose its valence electron. Nobel gases need lots of energy for its electrons to break away as they are not reactive because they do not have the need to gain or lose electrons as their valence shells are full. As the elements across the period get to the noble gases more energy is needed to have a full valence shell as more electrons have to be taken out for the previous main energy level to become the outer shell. However, once an outer shell is achieved, to take out an electron it would need a massive input of energy as the atom has an electron configuration of a noble gas. Oribital Charge Oribital Charge Mr Johnson

http://9gag.com/gag/4272011

http://9gag.com/gag/3351568

http://9gag.com/gag/4388559

http://9gag.com/gag/4877320

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19584301

http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/125479582.png

http://obsn3.on.br/jlkm/astron2e/AT_MEDIA/CH04/CHAP04AT/AT04FG03.JPG

http://www.c3l6.com/files/AlkaliMetalsPoster.pdf

http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/build-an-atom

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_do_atoms_want_a_full_shell

http://nz.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20110731000128AAguhNY

http://www.thescienceforum.com/chemistry/12394-why-do-atoms-want-gain-full-outer-shells.html

http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=8250 http://www.google.co.zw/imgres?q=smiley+face&um=1&hl=en&biw=1366&bih=643&tbs=isz:l&tbm=isch&tbnid=ARP3SVEXHLy68M:&imgrefurl=http://303909wxyz.wordpress.com/2011/09/07/acid-house/smiley-face/&docid=lIY91s25xj-j1M&imgurl=http://303909wxyz.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/smiley-face.gif&w=2400&h=2400&ei=4f1uUPn2Gsu6hAe9jYGoAQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1041&vpy=196&dur=118&hovh=225&hovw=225&tx=117&ty=162&sig=104578881114326657015&page=1&tbnh=119&tbnw=119&start=0&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:0,i:155

http://chemistry.about.com/od/elementfacts/a/iodine.htm

http://chemistry.about.com/od/iodine/a/10-Iodine-Facts.htm

http://www.ehow.com/about_5438833_proton.html

http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistry101/a/atomstudyguide_2.htm

http://www.qacps.k12.md.us/qhs/teachers/WeedonD/Atoms%20page%205.htm

http://www.qacps.k12.md.us/qhs/teachers/WeedonD/atoms%20page%204.htm

http://www.houseandhome.org/electron-facts

http://www.houseandhome.org/electron-facts Sources: _ _ Examples of the Four Quantum Numbers

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# Chemistry - Atomic Structure

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