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Literary Terms

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NATONYA HUFF

on 29 August 2013

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Transcript of Literary Terms

the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character. Characterization is revealed through direct characterization and indirect characterization.

tells the audience what the personality of the character is.

shows things that reveal the personality of a character.
Character
Vivid descriptive language that appeals to one or more of the senses (sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste).
IMAGERY
the main character, usually the "good" guy in the story. The story mainly focuses on this character's experiences.

usually portrayed as the "bad" guy, or the person that goes against the protagonist and what hes trying to do.
TYPES OF CHARACTERS
the basic sequence of events in a story
PLOT
PLOT STRUCTURE
MAN VS. HIMSELF
INTERNAL CONFLICT
MAN VS. MAN
MAN VS. NATURE
MAN VS. SOCIETY
EXTERNAL CONFLICT
the narrator restricts the perspective to that of only one character to tell the story
FIRST-PERSON
SUBJECTIVE
the narrator restricts his knowledge to one character’s view or behavior
THIRD-PERSON LIMITED
the narrator tells the story in third person from an all-knowing perspective. The knowledge is not limited by any one character’s view or behavior, as the narrator knows everything about all characters
THIRD-PERSON OMNISCIENT
the way that a story is told
NARRATION
FORESHADOWING
an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point the story has reached
FLASHBACK
SUSPENSE
IRONY
DRAMATIC IRONY
THEME
UNIVERSAL THEME
ALLUSION
the central or universal idea of a piece of fiction or the main idea of a nonfiction essay. Themes are ideas or concepts that relate to morals and values and speak to the human experience.
SUBPLOT
a secondary or minor plot in a literary work which may contrast with the main plot,
highlight it, or be completely unrelated
POINT OF VIEW
the narrator reveals only the actions and words without the benefit of the inner thoughts and feelings
OBJECTIVE
LIMITED
the story is told through the point of view of a single character and is limited to what he or she sees, hears, feels, or is told
a reference within a literary work to another work of literature, art, or real event. The reference is often brief and implied.
ALLUSION
TONE
the author’s particular attitude, either stated or implied in the writing
(e.g., serious, humorous, logical, emotional)
a literary technique used to create meaning that seems to contradict the literal meaning or events
a psychological conflict within a character
the atmosphere or feeling created by the writer in a literary work or passage. Mood can be expressed through imagery, word choice, setting, voice, and theme.
MOOD
the point in a literary work at which the story’s problem is worked out
RESOLUTION
the sustained interest created by the buildup of events and delayed resolution of the plot’s conflict
transcends social and cultural boundaries and speaks to a common human experience
EXAMPLE •Wealth does not dictate man’s importance.
•The beauty of a person is not solely defined by outward appearance
A series of events that builds suspense and leads to the climax of the story.
CLIMAX
FALLING ACTION
EXPOSITION
RESOLUTION
the most important point in the story, often a turning point and the most emotional moment in the book for the main character.
Loose parts of the plot are usually tied up here and knowledge is revealed that makes you understand parts of the plot that weren't very clear before
The ending of the story, the conclusion where everything is resolved
the beginning of the book where the major character is introduced.(
Direct Characterization
Indirect Characterization
PROTAGONIST
ANTAGONIST
FOIL
Genre
the type or class of a work, usually categorized by form, technique, or content. Some examples of literary genres are epic, tragedy, comedy, poetry, novel, short story, and creative nonfiction.
a body of traditional or sacred stories to explain a belief or a natural happening


literature that is widely acknowledged for its outstanding and enduring qualities


stories that were originally oral and later became written text
Traditional literature
Classical literature
Mythic literature
TROPE/ FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
language not intended to be taken literally but layered with meaning through the use of imagery, metaphors, and other literary devices
NON-LINEAR PLOT
Non-linear plot - a plot becomes non-linear through the use of literary techniques; may be hard to follow and seem somewhat disorganized
the use of hints or clues in a narrative to suggest what action is to come
PARALLEL STRUCTURE
two or more major plots that occur within a story and usually intersect
a secondary character who contrasts with the protagonist in order to highlight aspects of the main character’s personality. Foils may be sidekicks (e.g., Han Solo to Luke Skywalker) or enemies (e.g., The Joker to Batman).
Dramatic irony - a dramatic device in which a character says or does something that they do not fully grasp, but is understood by the audience
VERBAL IRONY
SITUATIONAL IRONY
Verbal irony - the use of words in which the intended meaning is contrary to the literal meaning (e.g., I could care less)
Situational irony - a literary technique for implying, through plot or character, that the actual situation is quite different from that presented
a bitter form of irony, intended to taunt or hurt


a seemingly contradictory statement that on closer scrutiny reveals a deeper truth (e.g., life is but a dream)
Paradox
Sarcasm
CONFLICT
in literature, the opposition of persons or forces that brings about dramatic action central to the plot of a story.
the perspective from which the events in the story are told
RISING ACTION
a specific convention or structure—such as imagery, irony, or foreshadowing—that is employed by the author to produce a given effect. Literary devices are important aspects of an author’s style.
LITERARY DEVICE
a subtle comparison in which the author describes a person or thing using words that are not meant to be taken literally (e.g., time is a dressmaker specializing in alterations)
Simile
Metaphor
Analogy
figurative language that makes comparisons in unexpected ways. A literary analogy is often an extended comparison. The purpose is to show similarities in process or in structure. For example, an author might compare a visit to a flea market to an all-you-can-eat buffet, carrying the comparison through a paragraph, section of the work, or an entire piece.
a comparison of two things that are essentially different, usually using the words like or as (e.g., O my love is like a red, red rose from Robert Burns’s “A Red, Red Rose”)
a rhetorical technique, often incorporating irony or humor, in which something is represented as less than it actually is
an intentional and extreme exaggeration for emphasis or effect (e.g., this book weighs a ton)
Understatement
Hyperbole
EXTENDED METAPHOR
a metaphor in which the comparison is carried through several lines or even the entire literary work
CONCEIT
an extended metaphor in poetry or literature which is often fanciful or elaborate
The conversation between characters in a drama or narrative.
DIALOGUE
Characterization
a person who is responsible for the thoughts and actions within a story, poem, or other literature
ALLITERATION
a pattern of sound that includes the repetition of consonant sounds. The repetition can be located at the beginning of successive words or inside the words.
SYMBOLS
a person, place, thing or objects that has a concrete meaning in itself and also stands for something beyond itself
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