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Diabetes

Biology science presentation
by

michelle mir

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of Diabetes

The End !
Canada Diabetes Association: Diabetes Facts [internet].© 2012 Copyright Canadian Diabetes Association. Toronto, ON: Author Unknown: [cited 2013 December 23]. Available from: http://www.diabetes.ca/diabetes-and-you/what/facts/
Canada Diabetes Association: The History of Diabetes [internet]. © 2012 Copyright Canadian Diabetes Association. Toronto, ON: Author unknown: [cited 2013 December 23]. Available from: http://www.diabetes.ca/diabetes-and-you/what/history/
Canada Diabetes Association: The Prevalence and Cost of Diabetes [internet]. © 2012 Copyright Canadian Diabetes Association. Toronto, ON: Author unknown: [cited 2013 December 25]. Available from: http://www.diabetes.ca/diabetes-and-you/what/prevalence/
Kids Health from Nemours: Treating Type 1 Diabetes [internet]. © 1995-2014 The Nemours Foundation. Location unknown: Neil Izenberg, MD: [cited 2013 December 27]. Available from:http://kidshealth.org/parent/kh_misc/about.html
Teen Health from Nemours: Type 2 Diabetes: How Is It Treated [internet]. © 1995-2014 The Nemours Foundation. Location unknown: Neil Izenberg, MD: [cited 2013 December 27] Available from: http://kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/growth/treating_type2.html#
Joslin Diabetes Center: Type 1 Diabetes Research [internet]. © 2014 by Joslin Diabetes Center. Joslin Diabetes Center and Joslin ClinicOne Joslin PlaceBoston, MA 02215: Author unknown: [cited 2013 December 28]. Available from: http://www.joslin.org/info/joslin-type-1-diabetes-research.html
Sanford Burham Medical Research Institute: Type 2 Diabetes [internet]. © Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. La Jolla, CA: Author unknown: [cited 2013 December 28]. Available from: http://www.sanfordburnham.org/research/yourhealth/Pages/Type2Diabetes.aspx
Mayo Clinic: Diseases and Conditions Type 1 Diabetes [internet]. © 1998-2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Florida, Jacksonville: Author unknown: [cited 2013 December 30]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-1-diabetes/basics/causes/con-20019573


Symptoms of diabetes
Diabetes
By: Michelle Mir

What is diabetes?
type 1;
mostly diagnosed in children and adults, type 1 is when the pancreas can not produce insulin because the immune system attacks the insulin . Insulin controls the amount of glucose in the blood.
type 2;
develops mostly in adulthood, type two is when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when body becomes resistance to insulin, sometimes due to the lack of physical activity, excess weight.
What is insulin ?

insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas by the beta cells and is used to lower glucose levels in your blood, when you eat, the insulin helps glucose get to the cells in the body for energy or for storage.

insulin lets them use the glucose in their blood as energy .

because type 1 has problems with producing enough insulin, they need to use the insulin needle to get the insulin into their system.

if glucose does not get into the cells it starts to build up in the blood stream, and insulin helps the glucose travel into the cells.
there are many symptoms of diabetes, but for each type there are different symptoms, they are similar to each other.
numbness in the hands or feet
tingling in feet and hands
blurry vision
unexplained weight loss
unusual thirst
frequent urination
having diabetes has many risks to your body and health such
eye problems - cataracts-
lens become thick and cloudy and make vision blurry, checking with your optometrist for any eye problems.
kidneys-kidney disease-
when your blood sugar gets high can cause problems to the blood vessels in the kidney.
heart and blood vessels- heart attacks-
because blood vessels are blocked which can not supply blood to the heart.

How is diabetes treated ?
it is recommended that every diabetes patient should be physically active, have a balanced diet, and checking their blood blood sugar levels daily.
insulin is prescribed to people with type 1 diabetes to help the glucose get into their cells and blood stream, because they do not produce enough insulin. the insulin is taken after a meal or during so it can break down.
complications
When and who discovered diabetes ?
Diabetes was discovered by Egyptians and was most researched about in Egypt and was discovered around the time 1552 BCE.
Causes
Diabetes is a non-communicable disease, it can be a genetic problem. Type 1 and type 2 have very similar causes, both types end up with too much sugar in the bloodstream which leads to high blood sugar levels.
being overweight
having a family member with diabetes
genetics
high blood pressure
high cholesterol or other fats in the blood stream
Diagnoses
Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses glucose. It develops when the body does not produce enough insulin or the body can not use the insulin correctly. Glucose is important because it feeds your body's cells and brain fuel. There are two types of diabetes
type 1 and type 2,
all types of diabetes means that you have too much glucose in your blood.
Type 1 causes
the immune system is supposed to attack harmful viruses and bacteria, but in type 1 it accidentally attacks the insulin.

this causes the insulin not to be produced and cells are created in the pancreas.

normally insulin is supposed to be sent straight to your cells, but because it can not, sugar starts to build up in your blood stream which causes high blood sugar level.
Type 2 causes
body cells becomes resistance to insulin and pancreas is unable to produce more insulin.
because insulin can not move into the cells, glucose starts to build up in the bloodstream , just like in type 1.
Blood tests are taken to check if the blood sugar is high or not, also because in early stages also known as prediabetes, of type 2 there are no symptoms shown.
These tests can also be taken for diagnoses
A1C

A fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test

oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
A1C
It is used to detect type 2 diabetes and prediabetes, not used to detect diabetes in type 1.
A1C is a blood test that tests the patients blood glucose levels over the past 3 months.
reported as a percentage, if the percentage is higher it means that the persons blood glucose level is higher.
normal A1C level would be below 5.7%.
Fasting plasma glucose test (FPG)
used to find prediabetes and diabetes
most common test for diagnosing diabetes.
measures blood glucose levels for someone who has at least fasted for 8 hours.
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
used to diagnose diabetes
measures blood sugar levels in someone who has fasted for at least 8 hours
2 hours later they give the person a liquid that they have to drink that is 75 grams of glucose
after wards they check their blood sugar level
if level is between 130 -199 mg/dl, then the person has prediabetes
if in second test the level is higher or is 200 mg/dl, the person has diabetes
Type 1 treatment
taking insulin needle
monitoring blood sugar levels daily
eating healthy
having a balanced diet
exercising regularly and maintain a healthy weight
you have to keep your blood sugar level close to normal
type 1 diabetics can not produce enough insulin, and not enough beta cells , because of that the glucose can not be delivered to the cells in the body and the glucose levels rise.
patients with type 1 diabetes have to take the hormone insulin as prescribed by a needle, insulin is the only medicine that can help the blood sugar levels stay balanced.
glucose is the sugar level in the body, because the body can not use the glucose it moves into the urine and it is lost, which is why frequent urination occurs as a symptom.
Type 2 treatment
maintain a healthy body weight
eating healthy
exercising
dieting
if that does not help the person control their diabetes they may need insulin therapy.
there is no official cure for type 2, but you can control it by
Diabetes affects about 25.8 million people
about 285 people in the world are diagnosed and about 7 million people are not diagnosed.
in Canada about 9 million people are diagnosed with prediabetes and diabetes.
Prognosis
the prognosis depends on what the type of diabetes the person has, and what blood sugar control they have.

in type 1 prognosis can be improved by controlling their blood sugar levels.

in type 2 it is a lifelong disease and does not have a cure, if the person looses weight and becomes active they do not need medicine anymore.
Treatment cost
for an individual with diabetes treatment cost can add up to $1,000 to $15,000 a year
the individual cost for insulin depends on how bad your condition is, and where you live
diabetes cost Canada's healthcare system $3.1 billion estimated in 2013
Length of treatment
the treatment length for diabetes varies on the brand of insulin you buy, but the insulin usually stays in the body about 3-5 hours.
taking treatment for having diabetes never ends, it is a lifelong disease, you can increase the dangers of diabetes by maintaining a healthy weight, balanced diet and being physically active.
Challenges for diabetics
if the person was active before they found out they got diabetes they would have to cut down on their physical activities.
they need to make sure that they are taking their medication properly.
can not eat junk food.
normal vs. resistance
common risk factors
common symptoms
Work Cited
Full transcript