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brittany darley

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of Enzymes

Enzyme Activities
Metabolic Pathways
Genreal Definition:
A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product. Metabolic pathways are categorized into two groups, catabolic and anabolic pathways.

What is an enzyme?
A molecule that acts as a catalist (a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction)
Specific Functions
Shape determines function, only allows for one specific type
Molecules find specific enzyme and come together to form a bond
An enzyme does not change, it goes on to help other molecules
Link together to form polymers
Enzyme activity and regulation
Feedback regulation with specific examples
Function and location of metobolic pathways
Lower the
activation energy
used in protiens, DNA, and other complex molecules.
Enzyme substrate complex
is when an enzyme converts a substrate into a product or products of the reaction
Example is:
Makes enzymes ineffective
Heat changes the shape of the enzyme
Molecules do not fit into enzyme
These two groups differ in that
catabolic pathways
release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds. It is referred to as the “degradative process.”

Anabolic pathways
instead consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones. Anabolic pathways are also referred to as “biosynthetic pathways.”
By: Brittany Darley
Jared Gran
Mario Rodriguez
Leigh Stonerook
Abigail Rios
Marina Garcia

Oxidative Phosphorilation
Formally Definted...."Oxidative phosphorylation is an enzymatic process that occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In eukaryotes, the process occurs as part of cellular respiration within the mitochondrion. In prokaryotes, it occurs in the cell membrane itself."
A metabolic pathway that creates ATP from ADP through the "phosphorylation" that derives the energy from the oxidation of nutrients.
Two common types:
-alcohol fermentation
-lactic acid fermentation
Oxidative Phosphorilation has two essential parts those being the Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Chemiosmosis.

1. The "ETC"- Is involved in the pumping of H+ protons which create a H+ gradient across the membrane of the cell.

2. Chemiosmosis- Describes ATP synthesis as a result of the flow of H+ ions back and forth across the membrane!
Fermentation uses glycosis to oxidize glucose and uses a transport electron chain.

Humans muscle cells make ATP through lactic acid fermentation when their is a shortage of oxygen in the body. This occurs generally during strenuous workouts.
In the past it was believed that this was the cause for muscle sorenes and pain but recent studies indicate that its due to the increase levels of potassium ions.
3 Alternative cellular pathways for producing ATP
Anaerobic respiration
Aerobic Respiration
Reece, Jane B., and Neil A. Campbell. "An Introduction to Metabolism, Cellular Respiration and Fermentation." Campbell Biology / Jane B. Reece ... Ninth ed. Boston: Benjamin Cummings, 2011. N. pag. Print.
Wanamaker, J. R. Lew-Port's Biology Place. N.p., 2001. Web. 30 Jan. 2014.
Merriam-Webster dictionary, 2014
Professor James Nishiura 1999, Modulators of Enzyme activity from
McGraw-Hill, 2007, McGraw-Hill Higher Education; Animation: Feedback
Inhibition of Biochemical Pathways, from
[BMSC]. (2013, December 10) Differences Between Aerobic Respiration And Anaerobic Respiration - Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.you tube.com/watch ?v=318D5DUn45o
[sciencemusicvideos]. (2013, January 3) Enzymes: Mr. W's Enzyme Song [video file] Retrieved from http://www.you tube.co m/watch?v=NdMVRL4oaUo
[John Munro]. (2012, September 6) Feedback Inhibition [video file] Retrieved from
http://www.you tube.com/watch? v=DHZtOKyMPRY

A Fun Way to Remember Enzymes

"sugar splitting"
occurs in the cytoplasm
Glucose, a six-carbon sugar, is split into two three-carbon sugars and are oxidized using ATP.
The remaining atoms rearrange to form two molecules of pyruvate.
The net ATP glycolysis is 2 ATP's
Redox Reactions
Catabolic pathways that breakdown glucose and other organic fuels to hold on to chemical energy in the form of ATP is based on the transfer of electrons during chemical reaction.
Redox Reactions
- short term for oxidation-reduction reaction where electron transfers occur

- loss of electrons from substance
- addition of electrons to another substance
Feedback Inhibition
Suppression of the activity of an enzyme by a product of the sequence
of reactions in which the enzyme is participating. When the product
accumulates in a cell beyond an optimal amount, it decreases its own
production by inhibiting an enzyme involved in its synthesis.

video of feedback
Kreb's Cycle
Occurs in the mitochondria
Pyruvate diffuses into the mitochondria and a reaction occurs where the Carbon atom is released as carbon dioxide
CoA joins with two carbon atoms forming Acetyl CoA which then enters the cycle and binds to other molecules within the cycle
Electrons are released in molecules
ATP is released and molecule is regenerated.
Cycle repeats
Catabolic Pathways
Fementation - partial breakdown of glucose that doesnt require oxygen
Cellular Respiration - complete breakdown of glucose
aerobic respiration - oxygen is used as a reactant to store energy
Full transcript