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30 Years War (part 3 and 4)

by Daniel, Catharine, Will, Zoë
by

zzz zzzz

on 5 October 2012

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Transcript of 30 Years War (part 3 and 4)

30 Years War (part 3 and 4) By Will, Daniel, Zoë, and Catharine The Swedish Period Causes: Important People: Results: Important Events: The Franco-Swedish Period King Gustavus Adolphus II Of Sweden 1611-1632 Gustavus II:
Deceased King of Sweden
very religious wanted to get involved in Thirty Years War
Oxenstierna, Count Axel Gustafsson:
originally does not support Thirty Years War
King of Sweden convinced him before his death to put forth all his energies in war
now has full control of Swedish affairs in Germany
Swedish Chancellor supports Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Richelieu:
established alliance with Sweden
died in 1642 1630: Diet of Regensburg Meeting between Imperial electors
Emperor Ferdinand II, a Hapsberg, wanted his son Archduke Ferdinand to be the new Emperor and didn't want Fredrick (Palatine) to be pardoned. When they arrived, they sought alliances with those who had qualms with the Holy Roman Empire Richelieu negotiatied this treaty which subsidized Swedish forces if the Swedes retained a force yet promised not to attack neutral Catholic League and were not to interfere with Catholic worship RESULTS: Tilly takes control of Magdeburg, foremost Lutheran city falls, Protestant princes start to levy troops from Treaty of Leipzig 1632: Battle of Breitenfeld Tilly invades Saxony, Johann-Georg makes alliance with Gustavus, both attack Tilly in Leipzig, Tilly outnumbered, Imperial army utterly destroyed, VICTORY Founded the Swedish Empire: within the first few years of his reign Sweden became the third largest nation in Europe Championed the Lutheran cause--fought for Protestantism to be free practiced in German States Father of Modern Warfare revolutionized the use of cavalry
created new lighter artillery
used more mobile and disciplined infantry to confuse enemies Count of Tilly 1635-France Entered the War
1636-1638-Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar and Swedish General Baner had several victorious battles (Most notably, Germany and Wittsock)
1637-Ferdinand III succeeded Ferdinand II
1642-Richelieu died, leaving Cardinal Mazarin ruler of France
1640-1645-Swedish leader Torstensson led many battles for Sweden and was a major factor in ending the war (Significant victories: Nordlingen, Jankau, and Breintenfeld) Commander of Holy Roman Empire Army 1631: Sack of Magdeburg SWEDISH INVASION 1629: Treaty of Lübneck Replaced Wallenstein as Commander of Army Protestant electors refused to attend because Diet was in the south of Germany Instead they held a protest meeting in Annaburg in Saxony. All electors were afraid of the Imperial Army Wanted to go to war with the Dutch Also resulted in the dismissal of Wallenstein --Hapsburg general Diet is a failure; Archduke not elected Emperor and Louis XIII (French) refuse to accept treaty Moved inward through Pomerania in Oden River Valley Treaty of Fontainbleu Secret defensive alliance between French and Bavarians (Maximilian). French recognize Maximilian's claim to Palatine and Electoral title. 1631:Leipzig Colloquy Meeting of Protestant princes Decided to all become allies, create a third force Fruitless at the time
Before later battle at Breitenfeld, promises alliance to Adolphus Gustavus Adolphus destroys imperial forces at Frankfort-an-der-Oder Start attacking Magdeburg, hadn't been able to before because electors of Brandenburg and Saxony were insecure with role --Adolphus goes through Brandenburg and forces elector there to stay with him and help Adolphus takes control of Magdeburg, but then comes under siege from Imperial forces, who burn the city and kill 20,000 citizens Went all through Germany and destroyed many of the cities and areas
The breakup and utter defeat of the Holy Roman Empire
Last war fought for Religion as the main purpose End of the Danish Phase
led to Edict of Restitution--aimed at re-Catholization of Northern Germany
Gustavus Adolphus champions protestant cause and invades Northern Germany Torstensson 1630: Invasion of Pomerania agreed at gunpoint to alliance with Sweden
served as bridgehead through which the rest of Sweden's operations went to penetrate Germany Catholic lords decide to ask for French mediation between Catholic League and Swedish Army
French get some of Catholic lands from Gustavus if League diminished army, Maximilian refused, still enemies Wallenstein returns to service of the Imperial Army, had right to direct war and negotiate peace without Imperial consent, begins raising troops again in Bohemia Tilly joins forces with Maximilian, attacks Bamburg (Swedish holding), Tilly unable to stop Swedish counterattack, killed during battle, Sweden destroys Maximilian's army, takes Munich 1632, Maximilian flees to Salzburg (Hapsburg protection) Wallenstein recaptures Bohemia, traps Adolphus inside Nuremberg, attacks to break out don't work 1632: Battle of Lutzen Wallenstein attacks Saxony at Lutzen, Adolphus rushes to defense, Wallenstein entrenched, finally forced out 1631:The Franco-Swedish Treaty of Bärwalde Adolphus's death leaves hole in Swedish and German ranks
Swedes back out, League of Heilbronn among Protestant princes with overall Swedish leaders
Balwarde Treaty renewed
In Saxony-Silesia battles, Wallenstein first attempted to negotiate and then attacks and defeats Swedish-backed army Wallenstein 1635: Peace of Prague Everyone distrusted him, wanted him removed from power
1634 Emperor deposes him from power, Ferdinand of Austria to take over, Wallenstein flees to Eger where he is killed Edict of Restitution repealed Lutherans keep all territory they had in 1627 Amnesty given to all who opposed Ferdinand except the family of Frederick of Palatinate 1634: Battle of Nordlingen When Swedes finally attack Imperial, hopelessly outnumbered even though they don't know, army dissolves into chaos, leaders flee as ground troops decimated Ferdinand promised to revive the Reichskammergericht - the symbol of Imperial justice. All disputed cases could be referred to it. All armed forces in the empire combined into Imperial Army--controlled by the empire Alliances between separate states within Holy Roman Empire forbidden--> disolution of the Catholic League Terms: Results: Major victory for the leaders that worked for the good of all of Europe Protected rights of German states Adolphus killed during battle struggle for power amongst Protestants (Germany, France, Sweden, Denmark, and England) opposing the Holy Roman Empire
France joins the war in 1635
Richelieu and Oxenstierna join together
Now the final chapter of the war has begun... Da Playahz War-torn Germany
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