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Transcript of Domestic Violence:
A Look at Intimate Partner Violence
in the United States
Intimate partner violence (IPV)* is a serious, preventable public health problem that affects millions of Americans.
The term "
intimate partner violence
physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a current or former partner or spouse.
This type of violence can occur among heterosexual or same-sex couples and does not require sexual intimacy.
IPV can vary in frequency and severity. It occurs on a continuum, ranging from one hit that may or may not impact the victim to chronic, severe battering.
By Amy Williams
Target Prevention to STOP Human Targets
"It Rarely Stops!"
Domestic Abuse Intervention Project (DAIP)
of all domestic violence cases. The
domestic violence survivors
Stay or Return
to the abusive relationship is because the abuser controls their money supply, leaving them with
no financial resources
to break free
The number of American troops killed in Afghanistan and Iraq between
2001 and 2012 was
The number of American women who were murdered by current or ex male partners during that time was
of casualties lost during war
of physical assaults perpetrated against women are reported
to the police
by their intimate partners in
Fifty percent of them were people of color
This is the highest documented level of domestic violence homicide in the LGBT community in history
are exposed to
In the past, intimate partner violence was considered a personal problem to be handled privately (or ignored)
Why is IPV
a Social Problem?
By the 1950’s &1960’s the civil rights, anti-war and black liberation movements challenged the country, laying a foundation for the feminist movement.
In 1974 Boston, police respond to 11,081 family disturbance calls, most involving physical violence. At the end of the first quarter of 1975, 5,589 such calls were received, half of the previous year’s figure for that period. Boston City Hospital reports that 70% of the assault victims received in the ER were known to be women attacked in homes by husbands and lovers.
This is getting expensive and women's groups keep complaining!!!
What to do?...
Allows for temporary exclusion from the house
of the violent partner using a civil injunction
with the possibility of attaching powers of arrest
for subsequent violation.
The Domestic Violence Act
Congress passes the Violence Against Women Act, part of the federal Crime Victims Act, which funds services victims of rape and domestic violence allows women to seek civil rights remedies for gender-related crimes, and provides training to increase police and court officials’ sensitivity. It creates for the first time a federal right to sue the assailant for gender-based violence and provides that states and American Indian nations give full faith and credit to each other’s restraining orders.
current or former male partner in the U.S.
lose 8,000,000 days of paid work
every year because of the abuse perpetrated against them by current or former male partners. This
loss is equivalent to over 32,000 full-time jobs
is the estimated cost of incidents of intimate partner violence perpetrated against women in the U.S. in 1995 alone
18,500,000 mental health care visits
are made each year to intimate partner violence
The average cost of
for intimate partner violence for
women is $948
Personal Costs =
Bladder and kidney infections
Irritable bowel syndrome
Chronic pain syndromes
Central nervous system disorders
Migraines and headaches
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS
Delayed prenatal care
Pregnancy difficulties like low birth weight babies
and perinatal deaths
Women who experience severe aggression by men (e.g., not being allowed to go to work or school, or having their lives or their children's lives threatened) are more likely to have been unemployed in the past, have health problems, and be receiving public assistance
Restricted access to services
Strained relationships with health providers and employers
Isolation from social networks
Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Suicidal behavior in females
Inability to trust others, especially in intimate relationships
Fear of intimacy
Replaying assault in the mind
Engaging in high-risk sexual behavior
Decreased condom use
Early sexual initiation
Choosing unhealthy sexual partners
Multiple sex partners
Trading sex for food, money, or other items
Using harmful substances
Drinking alcohol and driving
Illicit drug use
Unhealthy diet-related behaviors
Abusing diet pills
Overuse of health services
How can I Work with ALL This STRESS?
The Goal: Changing Attitudes
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious problem that has lasting and harmful effects on individuals, families, and communities.
The goal for IPV prevention is to stop it from happening in the first place.
However, the solutions are just as complex as the problem.
Prevention efforts should ultimately reduce the occurrence of IPV by promoting healthy, respectful, nonviolent relationships. Healthy relationships can be promoted by addressing change at all levels of the social ecology that influence IPV: individual, relationship, community, and society. Additionally, effective prevention efforts will reduce known risk factors for IPV and promote healthy relationships.
Awareness Programs are Working!
Public concern has moved out of women's groups and into the mainstream. Professional sports has had many recent incidents of male against female IPV and the response has been loud public disapproval.
Men have entered the conversation against violence!
But what if the situation is reversed?
Four Theories from the Sociological Perspective:
#1 Culture of Violence Theory:
Idea that in large, pluralistic societies, some subcultures develop norms that permit the use of physical violence to a greater degree than the dominant culture. Thus family violence will occur more frequently in violent societies than in peaceful ones. Peer-relationships that support patriarchal dominance in the family and use of violence to support it are exemplary of this subculture. This theory has also produced the theories that examples from pornography and violent images on TV can support a "culture of violence" against women.
#2 Ecological Theory:
This theory attempts to link violence in the family to the broader social environment. This includes the culture, the formal and informal social networks of the family, the closer family setting and circumstances, and the family history. This type of framework sets up a basis for a risk-theory of domestic assault based on the given criteria.
#3 Evolutionary Theory:
This theory posits that as societies have changed from the relatively simple to the more complex, families have become smaller and nuclear in form and social relations have become more structured and thereby, more ambiguous. These changed circumstances result in different styles of parenting - for example, in tighter family networks less independence is granted to children and instead there is a reliance on physical punishment to secure obedience. This theory argues that obedience is valued most in highly structured hierarchical societies where a lot of activity occurs in formal social encounters outside the home.
#4 Feminist Theory:
There are many different ideas within feminist theory of domestic violence, but M.Bograd in Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse has identified four common strains. These are 1) that as the dominant class, men have differential access to material and symbolic resources and women are devalued as secondary and inferior 2) intimate partner abuse is a predictable and common dimension of normal family life 3) women's experiences are often defined as inferior because male domination influences all aspects of life 4) the feminist perspective is dedicated to advocacy for women.
How About a
Little Social Experiment?
Duluth Model of Power and Control
IPV affects people across all races, income levels, cultures, lifestyles, and countries
Patriarchal societal orientation has been used by abusers to enforce power and control in their intimate relationships across time causing complex emotions and situations that displace normative reactions to personal violence. Our society is arranged to allow men dominance in the home, public, work, and legal arenas
Society is changing its views concerning IPV in true Symbolic Interactionist fashion allowing for a rise in awareness of consequences
Domestic Violence among adult women is
-Esta Soler Futures Without Violence
Increased awareness campaigns and the widespread use of media is helping to change the attitudes of the next generation.
Changes in attitude lead to
changes in behavior.
Stopping IPV increases health, happiness, & productivity, and reduces government spending
Whatever the societal cause,
IPV is about
POWER and CONTROL
based on basic Conflict Theory
*IPV is used instead of the broader term domestic violence to differentiate between partner abuse and child abuse
The abuser male or female uses violence to illicit control and retain power and dominance
Functionalist theory may be applied to IPV in that employment has been generated by domestic violence services. I would like to challenge this view, however, based on the fact the government is responsible for funding most of these programs, shelters and paychecks. Our society would save much more money by bringing IPV to an end. These particular jobs may be lost but there are more benefits than costs to ending IPV
Plus, we save lives!!!!